Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной и аудиторной работы учащихся старших классов моу «Лицей №21» Курск 2000



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түріМетодические рекомендации
Муниципальное образовательное учреждение лицей № 21

Окружающая среда. Экология”.


Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной и аудиторной работы учащихся старших классов

МОУ «Лицей № 21»

Курск – 2000

Печатается по разрешению департамента образования г. Курска

В методической рекомендации дается текстовой материал с фонетическими и лексико-грамматическими упражнениями, направленными на формирование и совершенствование соответствующих навыков, и развитие речевых умений. Фонетические упражнения позволяют развить фонологический слух учащихся. Предназначается учащимся старших классов экономического и гуманитарного отделений лицеев, общеобразовательных школ, гимназий, колледжей.

Составители Аксентьева С.В.


Рецензент Бужинский В.В.

зав. кафедрой английского языка КГПУ, доцент, кандидат педагогических наук.


Муниципальное образовательное учреждение «Лицей № 21», 2000


Part I

Text A

Protection of Environment
It is a small world we live in and it is high time for all of us to realize it. Since ancient times people have been trying to produce more and more to increase human wealth. Nobody noticed that we were destroying. Nature by using it as the source of raw materials, and as the garbage can for our waste. Nature seemed to be boundless and endless… Far from it as it turned out.

Millions of cars and smoky factories pollute and spoil the air we breathe in. Pollution is hanging over big cities like an ugly brown cloud. At is hurting our lungs as well as the life of animals, birds and plants.

People need wood and paper, so we cut down our forests.

We don’t know what to do with waste materials of industry, so we pour them into water, bury them into soil, and shoot them into atmosphere. We pollute the water we drink, and the land we live in.

People build nuclear power stations and carry out nuclear tests. As a result, radiation represents one of the main problems today.

The rapid growth of population in the world may turn into another grave problem very soon.

The speed, with which we are using up our non – renewable resources like oil and gas, is appalling.

With the development of our civilization we have became dangerous to the planet and to ourselves. What must we do not to find ourselves in a dirty desert in the near future? This question cannot be ignored.

Some scientists are pessimistic about our problems. They suppose that we have already reached the point of no return. Others are more optimistic and believe that our ecological problems are solvable because more and more people begin to understand how dangerous they are. There is increasing awareness of people of the real state of the planet. In many countries environmental protection agencies and research centres are set up. Such organizations as “Green Peace” and “Friends of the Earth” try to put pressure upon those governments that do not care for ecology in their countries.

The humankind will be able to survive only if we all understand that environmental protection is our universal concern.



Vocabulary And Speech Exercises
Exercise 1. a) listen to the text and mark the pauses and logical stresses;

b) listen to the text one more time and try to remember the tunes;

c) read the text sentence by sentence, pay attention to the tunes;

d) translate the text into Russian.



Exercise 2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian words

and word combinations:


улучшить благосостояние человека; источник сырья; мусорный бак; казалось безграничной; как оказалось; это совсем не так; загрязняют и портят; загрязнение; вредит; выливаем их в воду; выбрасываем в атмосферу; ядерная электростанция; ядерные испытания; рост населения; важная; невосполнимые ресурсы; пугающий; оказаться; нельзя игнорировать; настроены пессимистично (оптимистично); достигли точки откуда невозможно вернуться; разрешимый; растущая осведомленность; состояние; организации по защите окружающей среды; оказывают давление; выживать; всеобщая забота.
Exercise 3. Pronounce the following words and write a spelling quiz with them:
environment; ecology; wealth; garbage can; nuclear power

station; non-renewable resources; appalling; pollution; growth of population; solvable; increasing awareness; environmental protection agencies; put pressure; survive; universal.


Exercise 4. Complete the following sentences from the text:


  1. Since ancient times people have been trying to produce more and more …

  2. Nature seemed to …

  3. Millions of cars and smoky factories pollute …

  4. We don’t know what to do with waste materials of our industry, so we …

  5. People build … and carry out …

  6. The rapid growth of population in the world may turn …

  7. What must we do not to …

  8. Some scientists are …

  9. In many countries …

  10. Such organizations as “Green Peace” and “Friends of the Earth” try to …

  11. The humankind will be able to survive only …


Exercise 5. Insert the missing articles where necessary in the following word

combinations:


it is _ small world we live in; as _ garbage can for our waste; we pour them into _ water, bury into _ soil, shoot them into_ atmosphere; we pollute _ water we drink, and _ land we live in; radiation represents one of _ main problems nowadays; we have became dangerous to _ planet and to _ ourselves; we have already reached _ point of no return.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
1. Is it important to increase human wealth?

What have people been doing for this since ancient times?

2. What pollutes and spoils the air we breathe in?

3. What do people do with waste materials of our industry?

4. Why does radiation represent one of the main problems nowadays?

5. What may turn into another grave problem very soon?

6. How do we use our non-renewable resources like oil and gas?

7. Do you think our ecological problems are solvable?

8. What point of view do you share?

9. What environmental agencies do you know?

10. Is there any such organization in your town?


  1. What are the main aims of these organizations?

  2. Do you think that our planet is in danger now?


Exercise 7. Retell Text A.
Text B

Don’t Litter
When many people live together, litter may become a problem. Some people find it easier to drop a paper, a wrapper or a cigarette, than to look for a garbage can for it.

Letter on the ground or in the street makes the city look ugly. Letter on the beach spoils the view. The wind blows serapes of paper far away. Empty bottles and cans go under one’s feet. Litter is not really dangerous but it is annoying. As for garbage, it may become a health problem. Rotting food on the ground smells bad. It attracts flies, insects and birds, which may carry disease. Around big garbage heaps rats live.

More and more people do not want to put up with litter and garbage in their cities. In many cities and towns littering is against the law. One may be fined for littering, and even sent to jail for repeated violation of the law. “Don’t litter” and “Keep your country tidy” are famous sayings all over the world nowadays. One may read these words on many wrappers and packing boxes.
Exercise 1. a) listen to the text and mark the pauses and logical stresses;

b) try to remember the tunes;

c) read the text sentence by sentence, pay attention to the tunes.
Exercise 2. Give English equivalents for the following Russian.
Бросать; обертка; уродливый; портит вид; что касается пищевых отходов...; гниющий; разносить болезни; противозаконно; повторное нарушение; жестяные банки попадают под ноги; обрывки бумаги; помойка; раздражающий; мириться с...
Exercise 3. Translate these sentences into English.


  1. Мусор делает город уродливым.

  2. Крысы могут разносить болезни.

  3. Все больше и больше людей не хотят мириться с мусором в своих городах.

  4. За разбрасывание мусора могут оштрафовать.

  5. Содержи свою страну в чистоте.


Exercise 4. Make up a dialogue proving that litter is not only ugly, but it can be

harmful to every living being. Use the following expressions:


It goes without saying;

Frankly speaking;

I don’t doubt that...;

I object to it;

Looks like that;

To my mind...;

nothing of the kind;

That’s just what I was going to say.


Text C

Why Must Technology Bring

Apology To Ecology?
To answer this question we must first of all learn the meaning of the word “ecology”. Ecology is a science which the relationship between all forms of life on our planet with its environment. This word came from the Greek “oikos” which means “home”. This idea of “home” includes the whole planet of ours, it’s population, the Nature, Animals, Birds, Fish, Insects, all other living beings and even the atmosphere around our planet. Do all of them live a happy and healthy life our Home nowadays? Unfortunately, it is not so. Indeed, many territories water basing, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans - the atmosphere are polluted with all kinds of technological, agricultural, chemical, nuclear and other wastes. The intensive development of sciences, industry and chemistry in the 20th century has made the pollution of our environment a global problem which should be solved by all means.

Besides, rapid growth of our population (there are about 6 billion people living on our planet now) needs more and more land; goods and modern conveniences for newly born people. The production of them will greatly increase the pollution of our environment. And what say about the awful harm caused to our Home by nuclear tests, atom bombs and accidents at our atomic power stations? Isn’t it high time to start solving this global problem and to make our life in our Home happy and healthy?

Now you know the answer to the question of why technology must bring apology to ecology. You are right. Because it has polluted and is badly polluting our environment. This problem became very pressing the subject of many scientific meetings.

And in conclusion all of should remember the wise advice of a great English writer John Galsworthy who said: “If you don’t think about the future you will not have it”.



Exercise 1. a) listen to the text and mark the pauses and logical stresses;

  1. listen to the text again and try to remember the tunes;

  2. read the text sentence by sentence.


Exercise 2. Give the English for the following word - combinations.
Взаимоотношение всех форм жизни с окружающей средой; стремительное развитие науки; технологические отходы; испытания ядерного оружия; аварии на атомных электростанциях; глобальная проблема; предмет многих научных встреч; технология должна извиниться перед экологией.
Exercise 3. Learn to be teacher.


  1. Preparation. Write 10 question based on the text to provoke answers.

  2. Work in class. Ask your question and let the students answer them. Correct their mistakes if any.


Exercise 4. Fill in prepositions in the following phrases if necessary.
This word came … the Greek “oikos”; the atmosphere … our planet; many territories are polluted … all kinds of wastes; the pollution … our environment; should be solved … all means; modern conveniences …newly-born people; the awful harm caused … our Home … nuclear test; accidents … our atomic stations; the answer … this question; why technology must bring apology … ecology; and … conclusion; the wise advice … a great English writer.
Exercise 5. Translate into English.


  1. Экология - это наука, которая изучает взаимоотношения всех форм жизни на нашей планете с окружающей средой.

  2. На самом деле, многие территории, водоемы, озера, реки, моря, океаны и воздух сильно загрязнены различными технологическими, сельскохозяйственными, химическими, ядерными и другими отходами.

  3. Производство всех товаров и услуг значительно увеличит загрязнение окружающей среды.

  4. Не пора ли начать решать эту глобальную проблему и сделать жизнь в нашем Доме счастливой и здоровой?

  5. Потому что она загрязнила и все еще продолжает загрязнять нашу окружающую среду.

  6. Великий английский писатель сказал: “Если вы не думаете о будущем, то у вас его и не будет”.


Exercise 6. Make up sentences with the following words (on the cards):

1. Environmental problems

2. Ecology

3. Pollution

4. Wastes

5. To the harmful

6. Nuclear tests
Exercise 7 Reproduce this test.

Text D

Do You Love Nature?
Ecology is a science about nature and about the relations of man with it. Practically, it is a science studying whether we human beings keep our common houses, our Planet Earth, in a good state and how we use the gifts it is giving us: water, air, land, minerals, plants, animals etc.

I am Irina Sutokskaya, an ecologist. I’ve been working in environmental protection for 20 years now. When I was a little girl I felt already that nature was the place where I was feeling most naturals. From that time my favourite season has been autumn when I could stroll in the woods enjoying the autumn trees, gold and purple, gathering mushrooms and thanking Mother Nature for each them. Later, when was studying biology, doing research in ecology and reading books on physics, I understood the physical basis and energy of those feelings.

We are really one with nature, our planet and the Universe being connected with them by every cell of our being. The feeling of being one with the world is very ancient. It is expressed in many old books and myths of different countries. For instance, Chief Seattle in his famous speech at a tribal meeting in 1854 expressed the feeling of North American Indians as follows: “Every part of this earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, every sandy shore, every mist in the dark woods, every clearing and every humming insect is holy in the memory and experience of my people…

We are part of the earth and it is part of us. The perfumed flowers are our sisters; the deer, horse, the great eagle – these are our brothers.”

The same wonderful feeling of being one with nature was always typical also for Russian people in old times. Every Russian village family had the images of nature everywhere in the house – the flowers on the cups, bed covers and clothes, the leaves on the towels as if reflecting that time when our ancestors were wiping their faces and hands after washing with green foliage of birch trees.

Unfortunately, later our technical civilization thinking only of materials goods succeeded in destroying Nature and creating the ecological crisis on our planet. And it is your challenge, young people, to restore an ecological balance on our planet and to leave it clean and healthy for future generations.


Exercise 1. a) listen to the text and mark the pauses and logical stresses;

b) listen to the text again and try to remember the tunes;

c) read the text sentence by sentence.
Exercise 2. Give English equivalents for the following Russian:
защита окружающей среды; прогуливаться по лесам; проводить исследование по биологии; соединяться с Вселенной каждой клеточкой нашего существа; выражено во многих старых книгах и мифах; святой; ароматные цветы; один на один с природой; было типично для русских людей; образы природы; предок; вытирать лицо зеленой листвой; материальные блага; создать экологический кризис; восстановить экологический баланс; будущее поколение.

Exercise 3 Pronounce the word-combinations restoring the missing prepositions:
relations … man … it; keep our planet … a good state; I’ve been working … environmental protection; reading books … physics; being connected … them … every cell … our being; his famous speech … a tribal meeting; sacred … my people; typical … Russian people; were wiping their faces and hands …green foliage … birch tree; succeeded … destroying Nature; to restore an ecological balance … our planet.
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:


  1. What does ecology study?

  2. How long has Irina Sutokskaya been working in environmental protection?

  3. Why does she love autumn?

  4. How can you prove that the feeling of being one with the world is very ancient?

  5. Was it typical for Russian people? Give your examples.

  6. What did our technical civilization succeed in?

  7. Who can restore an ecological balance on our planet?

  8. What should be done to solve this problem?


Exercise 5. Retell text D.

Text E

John Muir: American Naturalist.
John Muir was an inventor, conservationist, explorer, naturalist, and teacher. He dedicated his life to preserving nature.

He was born on April 21, 1838, in Scotland. He started school when he was three years old. The Scottish countryside was the perfect playground for John. He watched birds, explored meadows and fields, and climbed the ruins of a nearby castle.

In 1849 John’s family moved to America. When he was 22 years old he entered the University of Wisconsin. At the university, John studied chemistry, biology, and geology. In the spring of 1864, John set out for Canada. He began a lifelong journey to explore and eventually protect part of the North American wilderness.

On his first journey to California, John was amazed by the beauty he saw. The clear rivers, towering waterfalls, and great variety of plants and wildlife convinced him that California would be his home. From these experiences grew John’s love of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. When he saw sheep destroy the wilderness, he became more dedicated to finding a way to save it. He became a famous writer on the Sierras. He found so much destruction of the environment that he set out to save it. His efforts helped make Yosemite a national park in 1890. By 1892, he formed and became the first president of the Sierra Club. He was a respected consultant on conservation matters from then until his death. He taught us that we must learn to preserve and enjoy the wilderness. John Muir died in 1914.




Exercise 1. a) listen to the text and mark the pauses and logical stresses;

b) listen to the text again and try to remember the tunes;

c) read the text sentence by sentence.
Exercise 2. Point out the main stages of Muir’s life.
Exercise 3. Answer the following question:


  1. John Muir lived most of his life in America. But in what country was he born?

  2. How old was John when moved to America?

  3. What did he study at the university?

  4. At what age did John begin his travels across North America?

  5. In what state did John finally settle? Why did he settle there?

  6. What qualities in John do you like the most?

  7. If he were alive today, what do you think John would say about the environment?


Exercise 4. Retell the text.
Exercise 5. Find the material about any Russian naturalist and compare their lives

and ideas.



Part II

Exercises For Oral And Written Practice

I. Read and explain what the subject matter of ecology is.

Ecology is the science of how living things are related to their environment. Many people are concerned about protecting the environment from pollution, overcrowding, and destruction of natural resources. There are the names of the environmental problems of today:



  1. Littering

  2. Air pollution smog

  3. Water pollution

  4. Overcrowding, overpopulation

  5. Endangered species, animals which are almost extinct

  6. Destruction of natural resources


II. Discuss these problems and answer the questions.

  1. Have you noticed any of these environmental problems where you live?

  2. Which of these problems does your native country have?

  3. What can be done to problem the environment?


III. We know that polluted air, land, and water are harmful to plants, animals and people. We are the caretaker of the earth. How can we keep our earth clean? Write down your ideas.
IV. More than 200 years ago America proclaimed the Declaration of Independence. Now American ecologists have worked out the Declaration of Independence, which consists of three parts: “This We Know”, “This We Believe”, “This We Resolve”. The main idea of this Declaration is that everything in the world is independent and all together only we can save our planet from ecological crisis. If you were one of these ecologists what would you write into each part of this Declaration (in writing).
V. People who are concerned about the protection of our environment join together into different organizations. There are some in our country. Several journalists working on TV have formed the ecological expedition. They set out to those places which are the most defective, make reporting and show it in their special programs. If you were the members of such expedition where would you go first and why? Work in groups of three or four.
VI. Explain the statement “Ecology suggests activity!”

A. There are some topics to discus.



  1. Recycle Aluminum Cans.

  2. Don’t Buy Drinks in Plastic Bottles.

  3. Use Paper, Not Plastic.

  4. Recycle Newspapers.

  5. Turn out the light and appliances when are not using them.

  6. Use less Paper

  7. Don’t Throw Your Old Batteries in The Trash




  1. Make two posters on every topic: one in English and another in Russian. Send the Russian poster to your local government. Ask them to organize a local recycling centre.




  1. Join your poster together and make up the ecological ABC.


VII. Translate into English and add some more good advices.
Участвуйте в охране природы:

Найдите наиболее загрязненные места в вашей округе и сфотографируйте их.

Организуйте кампанию в своей школе по их очистке.

Сделайте плакаты и призывы для рекламы вашей кампании по очистке. Используйте для этого фотографии.

Напишите статью в любую газету.

Поступите так, ведь вы любите свою родину.

Пусть экологические проблемы станут достоянием гласности, вашей каждодневной заботой.
VIII. Your English friend is a member of the public movement “Travels for Peace and Nature”. He/she wants to know about the ecological problems in Russian as much as possible. Explain to your English friend:


  1. why environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the country;

  2. why it is necessary to take measures to protect the environment from industrial pollution;

  3. why in many towns and cities the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible level;

  4. why flatland hydropower stations have adverse effect on the environment;

  5. why people have the became more sensitive towards the environment in recent years;

  6. why Russia is cooperating in the field of environmental protection with other countries;

  7. why it is necessary for young people to participate in the environmentalist movement.


IX. Hold a conference on ecological maters. Use the previous material.
Part III
Assignments For Self-Control
I. Active Vocabulary: ecology, environment, to be related, to pollute, pollution,

destruction, littering, natural resources, protecting, to protect, to recycle, breath, soil, air, wastes, to waste, degradation, harmful, to interfere, atmosphere, global, development to increase, living being, Nature, nuclear test, science, scientific, to solve, solvable, technology, technological, to restore, civilization, balance, research, evolution, radiation, human wealth source, raw materials, nuclear power stations, non-renewable, be ignored, pessimistic, optimistic, to put pressure, to survive, universal, concern, ugly, to carry disease, to cause, technology, technological, overcrowding, overpopulation, species, to be extinct, smog, affect the quality of life, amount of toxins, barrel land/soil, burn waste, carry out environmental programmes, carry soil/water testing, cleaning structures, collected data condition of an ecosystem in balance, conduct environmental research, contaminated with radioactivity, critical importance destruction of the earth’s natural preserves, ecosystem, ecotourism, educate smb about environmental problems, ecological concerns, environmental activist, environmental degradation, environmental impact, increase environmental awareness, poor air quality, preserve, protected area, mental programmes, source of livelihood, survive, treatment process, various environmental careers, wasteful practices, wildlife restoration.


II. Give antonyms for the following words:

To be related; destruction; pollution; to waste; degradation; to benefit; development; ancient; to create; wonderful; harmful; healthy; intensive; rapid.


III. Fill in the blanks with the missing words and expressions:

1. Ecology is science which studies the relationship between …

2. Indeed, many territories are polluted with …

3. We are part of … and it is part of …

4. With … we have become dangerous to …

5. … are pessimistic about our problems.

6. The speed with which we are using up … is appalling.

7. If you don’t think about the future …

8. Our ecological problems are … because more and more people begin to understand how … they are.
IV. Translate into English.
Предположим, что ты выходишь из дома ранним солнечным апрельским днем и видишь … “О, что это?” Это желтый одуванчик. Он смотрит на тебя снизу и говорит: “Защити меня, пожалуйста”.

Знаешь ли ты, как русские любят его? Поэтесса Анна Ахматова и писатель Владимир Солоухин посвятили ему свои произведения. Фаберже, известный русский ювелир, создал изысканное украшение в виде одуванчика.

Наша земля изобилует красивыми цветами, растениями, деревьями, которые растут и цветут на лугах, по берегам рек и озер, в лесах и садах.

Многие цветы стали редкими и исчезают. Наши полезные насекомые не могут жить в атмосфере, насыщенной химикалиями и пестицидами. Повышенная радиация и транспорт оказывают вредное воздействие на людей и животных.

Мы знаем, что очень много людей во всем мире участвуют в контроле за чистотой атмосферы, воды, климатических изменений, происходящих из-за вмешательства человека в живую природу.

Эти проблемы становятся насущными, они становятся предметами обсуждения многочисленных научных конференций. Пусть каждый помнит – мы живем только раз и совсем недолго. И у нас есть только одна Земля на всех: и для тех, кто любит её и кто – нет.


V. Translate into English.
Теплоцентраль сжигает уголь для того, чтобы выработать энергию, которая дает свет в ваших домах. Этот сжигаемый уголь выделяет газы, которые дают парниковый эффект и кислотный дождь.

Выключайте свет, когда вы выходите из комнаты, а, находясь в комнате, выключайте источники света, которые вам не нужны. Днем, для того чтобы почитать, садитесь ближе к окну, вместо того, чтобы включать свет. Выключайте телевизор или проигрыватель, когда вы не смотрите или не слушаете.




  1. Learn to be a teacher.




  1. make a review of the active vocabulary and express the meaning of certain words in other words.

  2. make up a chain of words the final letter being the beginning of the next word.

Nature - ecological - littering -...

  1. Find or think of a game to check the vocabulary of the students.




  1. Find the necessary material and organize a sitting of an English speaking club.




  1. Learn verses.

* * *

Learn nature! To save it try,

Because the sun, the grass, the sky,

The silver moon, that’s sailing by,

The rain and snow white,

The flowers sweet and stars of night,

The song of birds, wind whispering,

The autumn leaves, the buds of spring,

Such lovely thing to see

Belong to you, belong to me!

* * *

Which Way Does the Wind Blow?

Which way does the wind blow?

And where does he go?

He runs over the water,

He runs over the snow.
From what place he comes,

To what place he goes,

There’s no one can tell you,

There’s no one who knows.


* * *

The Dandelion
A dandelion yellow as gold,

What do you do all day?

I just wait here in the tall green grass,

Till the children come to play.


A dandelion yellow as gold,

What do you do all night?

I wait and wait till the cold dew falls

And my hair grows long and white.


And what do you do when your hair is white

And the children come to play?

They take me up in their little hands

And blow I my hair away.


* * *

The Child and the Bird.
“Little bird, little bird, come to me!

I have a pretty cage you can see;

Many bright flowers I’ll bring to you,

And fresh, ripe cherries, all wet with dew”.


“Thanks, little girl, for all the care,

But I dearly love the clear, cool air;

And my cosy little nest in the old oak-tree

Is better than your pretty cage for me!”


“Little bird little bird, where will you go

When all the fields are covered with snow?

The ice will cover the old oak-tree;

Little bird, little bird, stay with me!”


No, little girl, away I’ll fly

To greener fields and a warmer sky:

When spring comes back with cheerful rain,

My joyful song you will hear again”.


IX. Explain the following proverbs; make up situations with these proverbs.
A snow year, a rich year.

A tree is known by its fruit.

Beautiful flowers are soon picked.

He cannot be a gentleman that loves not dog.



Literature

1. “Oral Topics on English” (I level) Moiseev M.D.


2. “Happy English – 2” Klementieva T.B.
3. “Happy English – 2. Reader” Klementieva T.B.
4. “Foreign Languages at School” № 3, 1989.
5. “Foreign Languages at School” № 2, 1991.
6. “Foreign Languages at School” № 3, 1991.
7. “English 8/9. Optional Course” Ostrovsky B.S.


  1. “Foreign Languages at School” № 4, 1999.


9. “Snowball English”. Denisova L.G.



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