Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский для студентов естественных факультетов


Which of these words are international and which are false friends?



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3.4. Which of these words are international and which are false friends?

Engineer, student, complexion, legend, pioneer, prospect, massive, director, manifest, president, ambulatory, magazine, fact, lecture, nomenclature, logic.


3.5. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the italicised words:

1. They needed a pilot to take their ship into the harbour. 2. He entered an air Force school to become a pilot. 3. All the pills are kept in the medicine cabinet. 4. With the help of a new programme scientists would ,be able to foretell the weather for decades. 5. You should give your arguments for the programme. 6. Let's use another conductor in the device. 7. She liked potatoes baked in their jackets. 8. The jury found the prisoner not guilty. 9. The surgeon extracted the lens of his left eye to replace it with an artificial one. 10. There was not much harmony in international affairs during these years. 11. He needed an instrument to extract the stopper.

Unit 4

КОНТЕКСТ


4.1. Enjoy the jokes. Pay attention to the play on words.

T e a c h e r: Jerry, give me the formula for water.

J e r r y: H, J, K, L, M, N, O.

T e a c h e r: What kind of a crazy answer is that?

J e r r y: You told us water was H to O.

***


“I wish”, said Mother to her lazy son, “you paid a little attention to your arithmetic”.

“Well, I do”, was the reply. “I pay as little attention to it as possible”

***

Client arriving at Runnymede to be told that this was where the Magna Carta was signed:



“Really – when was that?”

The answer was: “Twelve fifteen”.

Looking at the watch the client said:

“Oh, darn it, we’ve missed it by 20 minutes”.

***

One day a very worried-looking man knocked at Mrs. Brown’s door.



“I’m terribly sorry”, he said. “I’ve run over your cat. I’d like to replace it”.

“All right”, said Mrs. Brown doubtfully. “But can you catch mice?”

***

D i c k: My father makes faces all day.



B i l l: Why does he do that?

D i c k: Because he works at the clock factory.


LANGUAGE NOTES

КОНТЕКСТ

Абсолютное большинство слов любого языка являются многозначными. Только в устной или письменной речи они обретают какое-либо конкретное значение.

Контекст – это минимальная часть текста, которая делает слово однозначным. Например, англ. title может означать “заглавие”, “титул”, или “право на что-л.”. Но в предложении “His title is Professor.” слово title однозначно.

С другой стороны, иногда можно догадаться о значении пропущенного или незнакомого слова по контексту, например:

The cold wind caused a … in temperature. (drop)
4.2. Determine the meaning of the italicised words in the context and translate the sentences:

A. 1. The soldier is now at his post. 2. The man did his best to get a better post. 3. I will send you the book by post. 4. The wooden gate was supported by two metal posts.

B. 1. The chameleon has the power of changing its colour. 2. I will do everything in my power to help. 3. He’s a man of great intellectual powers. 4. The boxer was sorry for having underestimated the power of his competitor’s blows. 5. The device operates on electrical power. 6. Are the powers of the President defined by law? 7. Is the press a great power in your country? 8. What is the third power of this number? 9. They employed a high power telescope. 10. The Great Powers have agreed to co-operate on this matter.

C. 1. The cloth is unfortunately very rough to the touch. 2. He had to apologise for his rough behaviour. 3. The sea was rough and no swimming allowed. 4. This suitcase must have had some rough handing. 5. She has a very rough tongue. 6. That is a rough translation, it requires stylistic improvement. 7. I’ve seen his new statue only in the rough. 8. He was set on by a gang of roughs why knocked him down and took all his money.

D. 1. The summer temperature there does not exceed 20°C in the shade. 2. We have dress materials in several shades of blue. 3. The word has many shades of meaning. 4. She is a shade better today. 5. You are so clever and brilliant that my poor efforts are put into the shade.

E. 1. The date of his birth is 15 November, 1975. 2. 1492 is the date of the discovery of America by Columbus. 3. What’s the date today? 4. Has the date for the meeting been fixed? 5. Many ruins of Roman date are to be seen in the south of France. 6. Will jeans ever go out of date? 7. I’ve got a date with a friend of mine. 8. The method applied is up-to-date.

F. 1. I don’t know whether he is here or not. 2. He knows a lot of English. 3. Do you know how to play chess? 4. I was introduced to Miss Wood last week, but I’ve a bad memory for faces and might not know her again. 5. He’s already known to the police. 6. They are twins and it’s almost impossible to know one from the other. 7. He knew poverty in his early life. 8. She knows a good singing voice when she hears one. 9. I knew about it last week.
4.3. Find Russian equivalents for the italicised set expressions and translate the sentences:

A. 1. If you don’t take care of your teeth you’ll stand a good chance of loosing them. 2. The new type of refrigerator prolongs the storage life of food. 3. Market economies rest upon the principle of individual freedom. 4. In implementing the programme they faced a lot of unexpected problems. 5. Do you have many top student’s in your class? 6. A new second-hand clothes store was opened in our district. 7. The nurse gave him an injection of penicillin. 8. Let’s knock a hole in the wall. 9. Tom would not lift a finger to solve the problem. 10. When he regained consciousness, he found himself in hospital.

B. 1. The arrow hit the target. 2. It was a narrow escape for him. 3. She survived the operation. 4. The air was rich with the scent of summer flowers. 5. The earthquake caused much damage. No loss of life was reported. 6. He often meets with misfortune. 7. He backed the car into the garage. 8. The child clung to its mother’s skirt. 9. Don’t encourage him in his idle ways. 10. I intended no hurt to his feelings.

C. 1. He didn’t want her to ask him any questions. 2. Pay attention to the spelling of the word. 3. She takes a keen interest in history. 4. He hoped he’d manage to gain his living. 5. Last night I had a wonderful dream. 6. The train runs from London to Manchester. 7. Rich feeding does more harm than good. 8. They were looking at terraces rising from the sea. 9. Let us take an example. 10. Unfortunately, he missed the 5 p.m. train.

D. 1. The ship went aground. 2. It’s not easy to get on friendly terms with him. 3. Mr. Smith was asked to arbitrate the dispute. 4. The lawyers argued the case for hours. 5. He was placed behind prison bars. 6. His fingers were bitten by the frost. 7. Her failure to pass the examination was a great disappointment. 8. Where does the blame lie for our failure? 9. Large, black clouds announced a coming storm. 10. My life is entirely given up to work.

E. 1. The idea struck me greatly. 2. Don’t play the fool. 3. Mr. Smith consulted Mr. Green on the matter. 4. The mist lifted. 5. Snakes renew their skins. 6. He came across an interesting fact. 7. All-round co-operation among the countries is very important. 8. We are always short of time. 9. It takes an hour to get there. 10. They put forward two questions for discussion.

UNIT 5

ЯЗЫК МАТЕМАТИКИ


LANGUAGE NOTES

ПРАВИЛА НАПИСАНИЯ ЧИСЕЛ
1. Основное различие при написании чисел в английских и русских текстах заключается в использовании точек и запятых. По английским правилам пунктуации точка отделяет десятичные знаки от целых частей, а в русском языке для этих целей используется запятая. В английской пунктуации запятая отделяет разряды целых чисел.

2. Ноль может опускаться при написании десятичных дробей.

3. Большое количество нулей после точки в английских десятичных дробях может заменяться нулем в соответствующей степени (см. таблицу).


АНГЛИЙСКИЙ

РУССКИЙ

3.459

3,459

4,875,672

4 875 672

.347

0,347

.062

0,0000002


5.1 Translate the sentences:

1. Sum up the numbers, please. 2. There must be a mistake in the subtraction exercise, check up the numbers by addition. 3. You should have added the numbers rather than subtracted them. 4. Would you kindly repeat the items of addition? 5. Here are two numbers for you to multiply. 6. The calculator can multiply two five-digit numbers. 7. Please divide the number by 15 and tell me what the quotient is equal to. 8. Before trying to solve the problem you should check up the multiplication factors. 9. You’ve missed the division sign. 10. Sorry, what number should be taken from 1218?


5.2 Translate the sentences paying attention to numbers. Convert to metric system if necessary (See Appendix 5):

1. The distance to the Moon is 239,000 miles. 2 The distance to the Sun is 90,000,000 miles. 3. The plane flew at the altitude of 30,000 ft. 4. The armoured plate was 1.5 in thick. 5. The rocket speed was as high as 3,500 km per hr. 6. I need the U.S. Patent No. 4,861,437. 7. The wall was 10.3 in thick. 8. The motor is said to operate at a rate of ca 1,000 r.p.m. 9. The pipe diameter was 75 in 10. The building site area was 16 acres.


5.3 Translate the sentences:

A. 1. Any improper fraction can be converted into a mixed fraction. 2. To add the two vulgar fractions you'll have to find first their common denominator. 3. What do you say the numerator of the fraction is? 4. A person can be likened to a fraction in which the numerator is what others value him for, and the denominator is his own estimation of his qualities. The larger the denominator the smaller is the fraction. 5. The decimal fraction 4.15 is read “four and fifteen hundredths” or “four point fifteen”. 6. To what power can the calculator raise numbers? 7. The calculator can do cube roots only. 8. I can't find the 5th power of the number manually. 9. Would you kindly repeat all the indices of the roots so that I could check them up. 10. What do you say the fourth power of the number is?

B. 1. The sum is expressed by a mixed fraction. 2. You should have multiplied the number by three. 3. The fourth power of 45 is easy to calculate. 4. The calculator can do fifth roots as well. 5. Here is a table of logarithms. 6. I can't raise the number to the fourth power manually. 7. Please, find the square root of this number. 8. Nine into fifty four goes six times. 9. Three times eight equals... 10. Five multiplied by six is...

C. 1. The power of the U. S. A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima was 20 kilotons whereas the power of modern H-bombs is within the megaton range. 2. It took them about a decade to solve the problem. 3. Water was pouring from the hole at a rate of three hectolitres per minute. 4. The electronic stop-watch can show time intervals with an accuracy of several microseconds. 5. In an American text the word “billion” means the 9th power of 10, whereas in an English text it is the 12th power of 10. 6. The 12-th power of 10 in an American text is trillion and the 9th power of 10 in an English text is milliard. 7. The laser emits a light beam of 100 manometers. 8. If the denominator is smaller than the numerator the fraction is improper. 9. This is an equation in two unknowns. 10. Unfortunately, I can't prove the equation.


LANGUAGE NOTES

ПЕРЕВОД СОКРАЩЕНИЙ

СОКРАЩЕНИЕ (АББРЕВИАТУРА) – это написание части слова вместо целого, например, Dpt. < Department, dtd. < dated.
5.4. Translate the sentences. Consult Appendix 2 or dictionaries for abbreviations:

1. Two 324.75 MW turbo-generators will produce electric power. 2. Gas blowers are driven at a constant speed of 1,487 r. p. m. by an A. C. motor of 9,850 Hp. 3. Gas will pass at a pressure of 275 psi. 4. The graphite core will be penetrated by over 4,000 vertical holes of approximately 4 ins in diameter. 5. For every 100 lbs of semolina some 26 lbs of water ranging in temperature from 70°F to 140°F are used. 6. The difference between equatorial and polar radiation intensities was about .015 degree. 7. The mass of an electron equals 9.108 x l0 g. 8. Proton is a positively charged elementary particle, the mass of which is 1.007579 amu.


LANGUAGE NOTES

ПЕРЕВОД АКРОНИМОВ

АКРОНИМ – это слово, образованное из первых букв нескольких слов, например, radar < radio detection and ranging.
При переводе акронимов, используются следующие методы:

1. Транслитерация используется только для широко известных акронимов, например, NATO - НАТО, и т.д. В остальных случаях рекомендуется использовать методы, описываемые ниже.

2. Если акроним редко встречается в оригинальном тексте, переводчик может дать перевод полного термина, например, WIFE (Water Injection - Fume Exhaustion) - нагнетание воды и отсос дыма.

3. Если акроним часто встречается в оригинальном тексте, лучше дать русскую транскрипцию с примечанием (даже если в оригинальном тексте примечания нет). Это делается только один раз, при следующих переводах данного акронима используется только его русская транскрипция, например, HELP (High-Energy Leadless Package) - ХЭЛП (термин образован из начальных букв английских слов, обозначающих “безвыводный корпус для мощных полупроводниковых приборов”).
5.5 Translate the sentences, paying attention to the acronyms:

1. They’d like to introduce CAPE (Computer Aided Production Engineering). 2. There was a fire in a coal mine. To put the fire out the fire brigade had to resort to a WIFE method (Water Injection – Fume Exhaustion). 3. The operator shall not forget to do the SOS (Scheduled Oil Sampling). 4. The labour efficiency increased greatly due to the EDGE (Electronic Data Gathering Equipment). 5. The investigation was carried out during the NEAR (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous). 6. OPEC decided to decrease oil export in January (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries). 7. The TOD was fixed at 22.30 (Time of Departure). 8. Their intention was to buy MBAs (Multibeam Antenna). 9. The system has been provided with an ACU (Alarm Control Unit). 10. The installation could supply the factory with 500 BOD (Barrels of oil per Day).


5.6. Translate the sentences:

1. It’s common knowledge that liquids are non-compressible. 2. The food was non-digestible. 3. He decided to shorten the programme. 4. The substance was quite harmless. 5. They were listening to the story told by a survivor of the terrible earthquake. 6. Don’t worry, the disease is curable today. 7. A sad smile appeared involuntarily on her face. 8. The substance isn’t sensitive to X-rays without preliminary treatment. 9. Long-time storage of the drug is undesirable. 10. Unfortunately the instability of plasma couldn’t be completely eliminated. 11. The lightweight device is used for photomapping. 12. The receiver operates at ultra-short waves. 13. They suggested making the device water-proof. 14. A LED (Light Emitting Diode) is used here. 15. Something must be wrong with the DAD (Digital Audio Disk).


UNIT 6

АВТОМАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД. ПЕРЕВОД АРТИКЛЕЙ


LANGUAGE NOTES

Даже новейшие версии программного обеспечения для автоматического перевода (SOCRAT, PROMT, STYLUS и т.д.) далеки от идеала и не дают адекватного перевода научно-технических текстов. Более того, информация, содержащаяся в оригинальном тексте, при автоматическом переводе часто искажается. Тем не менее, если необходимо перевести большой объем текста и оформить его в печатном виде, автоматический перевод может значительно сэкономить время, затрачиваемое при наборе текста перевода на компьютере.

В любом случае, автоматический перевод нуждается в редактировании. Студентам рекомендуется использовать не программы автоматического перевода, а электронные словари (MULTILEX 2.0, LINGVO 6.0), и соблюдать осторожность при работе с автоматическими переводчиками.


    1. Compare the computerised translation of the first paragraph (SOCRAT software) with the edited version. Complete editing the translation of the text.


Original text

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

1. Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of research that goes back to the very beginnings of computer science. The idea of building a machine that can perform tasks perceived as requiring human intelligence is an attractive one. The tasks that have been studied from this point of view include game playing, language translation, natural-language understanding, fault diagnosis, robotics, and supplying expert advice. Challenging games such as chess have been the subject of intensive study, with the result that the leading modern chess programs can defeat all but the best human players.

2. Early attempts to translate from one language to another, even when the languages were somewhat similar (such as English and German), were based solely on dictionary lookup of words and mechanical syntax conversion. Results were often absurd. Recently AI researchers have achieved greater success by incorporating into the translation process both semantic and pragmatic knowledge--that is to say, by considering the meanings of words.

3. Essentially the approach is to understand a text (in the sense of creating a language-free representation of its meaning) before translating it. Thus natural-language processing (understanding) becomes the key to translation, as well as being important in itself for such applications as human-computer interaction via speech input.


Computerised translation:

ИСКУССТВЕННЫЙ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТ

1. Искусственный Интеллект (AI) - область исследования, которая возвращается к сами начала информатики. Идея строить машину, которая может выполнить задания воспринятые как требка человеческого интеллекта привлекателен. Задания, которые были изучаны от этой точки зрения включают прогон игры, перевод языка, естественно-языковое понимание, дефектный диагноз, робототехника, и поставляя экспертный совет. Вызывая игры как например, шахматы был предметом интенсивного анализа, в результате чего ведущие современные шахматные программы могут победить почти наилучших человеческих игроков.

2. Рано пытаются переводиться от одного языка на другом, даже, когда языки были отчасти аналогичными (как например, Английский и Немец), были основаны исключительно в словарном поиске текстового и автоматического синтаксического преобразования. Результаты были часто абсурдом. Недавно AI исследователи достигли большего успеха включая в процесс перевода как семантическое так и прагматическое знание-, то есть, принимая во внимание значения слов.

3. По существу метод должен понять текст (в смысле создания свободного представления от языка своего значения) прежде, чем переводить это. Таким образом естественно-языковая обработка (понимание) становится ключом на переводе, а также быть важно по своей сути для таких приложений как взаимодействие человеческого компьютера через речевой вклад.


Edited Translation:

1. Искусственный интеллект (ИИ) - это область исследования, восходящая к самим истокам информатики. Привлекает сама идея создания машины, способной выполнять задания, для которых, как считается, не обойтись без человеческого интеллекта. Проблемы, которые были исследованы с этой точки зрения включают в себя компьютерные игры, автоматический перевод, восприятие компьютером естественного языка, обнаружение ошибок, робототехника и обеспечение экспертных заключений. Такие интеллектуальные игры, как шахматы, стали предметом интенсивного исследования, в результате чего ведущие современные шахматные программы могут выиграть у любого человека, если он не чемпион мира.


LANGUAGE NOTES

ПЕРЕВОД АРТИКЛЕЙ

Артикли обычно не переводятся на русский язык, однако в некоторых случаях и они требуют перевода:

  1. Неопределенный артикль a/an происходит от слова “one” (один) и иногда переводится как “один, какой-то”, например, We have not a minute to waste. - У нас ни одной лишней минуты.

  2. Определенный артикль the происходит от слова “this” (этот) и иногда переводится как “этот, данный, вышеупомянутый”, например, The experiments ended in failure. - Данные эксперименты закончились неудачей.

  3. Если определенный артикль используется перед количественным числительным, он переводится как “все три, все пять, и т.д.”, например, He succeeded in solving the three problems. - Ему удалось решить все три задачи.

Функция артикля при переводе на русский язык реализуется с помощью порядка слов. Необходимо иметь в виду, что порядок слов в русском языке не является фиксированным как в английском, однако является синтаксически значимым. Изменение порядка слов в русском предложении меняет смысл предложения, так как новая информация обычно содержится в конце русского предложения. Например, The boy entered the room. - Мальчик вошел в комнату. A boy entered the room. - В комнату вошел мальчик.
6.2. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the articles:

A. 1. Is there a bank near here? 2. There was not a man alive there. 3. Neutron stars are known to rotate very quickly. The star makes a revolution per minute. 4. There seems to be a little chance that life can exist on a planet if the planet differs greatly from the Earth in size and weight. 5. Suppose the central electrode is a thin wire in a duct 20 cm in diameter. 6. I’ve seen the man. 7. The four known methods have been applied to minute to waste. 9. If you manage to solve the five problems you get the prize. If a problem remains unsolved you become an outsider. 10. I can’t vote for the proposal.

B.1. It seems to me I’ve seen the man. 2. The usefulness of the tests is questionable. 3. In the evening before going to bed he used to read a book for an hour or so. 4. I know the five devices well enough. 5. The act of transmitting a signal from one frequency band to another is called modulation. 6.She didn’t want to utter even a word. 7. I expected to see a new device but yours is an outdated one. 8. Certain materials exhibit piezoelectric properties, that is when subjected to a mechanical stress they develop an electrostatic charge. The effect has been employed usefully in many variations.
UNIT 7

ПЕРЕВОД СЛОВ С ОКОНЧАНИЕМ ING



LANGUAGE NOTES

В английском языке имеются три части речи, оканчивающиеся на ing: причастие I, герундий и отглагольное существительное. Для правильного перевода важно определить функцию слова с окончанием ing в предложении.

Герундий сочетает в себе свойства глагола и существительного:

свойства глагола

свойства существительного

  1. Герундий может иметь обстоятельства:

I need going there at once. Мне нужно немедленно пойти туда.

1. Герундий может иметь притяжательное местоимение: I like his singing. Мне нравится, как он поет.

2. Герундий может иметь прямое дополнение:

This is a diagram of recording temperature. Это график показаний температуры.



2. Герундий может иметь предлог:

This is a device for measuring temperature. Это прибор для измерения температуры.



3. Герундий может приобретать активную или пассивную форму:

I suggest recording the results. Я предлагаю фиксировать результаты. I need the results being recorded. Мне нужно, чтобы результаты были зафиксированы.



  1. Как и существительное, герундий может быть подлежащим или частью составного сказуемого, (Seeing is believing. Лучше один раз увидеть, чем сто раз услышать.); дополнением (I like reading. Я люблю читать.); обстоятельством (After finishing school he entered the university. После окончания школы он поступил в университет.).

4. Герундий может приобретать перфектную форму:

After having recorded the results they started analysing them. После того как результаты были зафиксированы, их начали анализировать.








Поскольку в русском языке нет части речи, однозначно соответствующей герундию, его можно переводить несколькими способами, в зависимости от функции:

1. The device for measuring temperature is called thermometer.

Устройство для измерения температуры называется термометром. (существительное)

2. He succeeded in performing the experiment.

Ему удалось осуществить эксперимент. (инфинитив)

3. We can increase the current by reducing the resistance of the circuit.

Можно увеличить силу тока, уменьшая сопротивление. (деепричастие)

4. We didn’t know of his having made experiment.

Мы не знали о том, что он провел эксперимент. (придаточное предложение)
Причастие I, сочетающее свойства глагола и прилагательного, обычно не представляет трудностей при переводе, за исключением случаев, когда оно функционирует как обстоятельство. В отличие от герундия, оно не сопровождается предлогом, но может сопровождаться союзом. В этом случае причастие I можно перевести несколькими способами:

АНГЛ.: Translating the text the student consulted the dictionary. = While translating the text the student consulted the dictionary. = When translating the text the student consulted the dictionary.

РУС.: Переводя текст, студент пользовался словарем. (деепричастие) = Когда студент переводил текст, он пользовался словарем. (придаточное предложение) = При переводе текста студент пользовался словарем. (существительное)

: ld
ld -> Сабақ тақырыбы, мақсаты Сабақ үрдісінде қолданылатын модульдер, әдіс-тәсілдер Сабақтың нәтижесі
ld -> Сабақтың мақсаты: Білімділік: оқушыларға қарсы мәндес сын есімдердің жасалу
ld -> Сын есімнің сөйлемдегі қызметі
ld -> Сабақтың тақырыбы: Әбділда Тәжібаев.
ld -> Қазақ мемлекеттік қыздар
ld -> 1. Отбасын таныстыру. Қай істеде өнер қолдан өнерлі адам жеңер болған
ld -> Мұқағали Мақатаев поэзиясының көркемдік жүйесі Опечатка
ld -> Сабақтың тақырыбы: Ана өмір гүлі


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