7.1. Find the gerunds and translate the sentences:
1. He remembers having added some water to the mixture. 2. They finished installing the apparatus only on Saturday. 3. They began making the experiment in May. 4. There are different ways of obtaining the substance. 5. We heard of the experiment having been started last week. 6. Instead of restoring the old theatre they decided to build a new one in the centre of the town. 7. New possibilities for applying atomic energy open up. 8. It is possible to set up power stations based on utilising the heat of the Sun. 9. The idea of creating a step rocket belongs to Tsiolkovsky. 10. Before being sent up the balloon was filled with a special gas. 11. What apparatus do we use for measuring air pressure? 12. Science requires experimenting.
7.2. Find the gerunds, determine their functions and translate the sentences:
1. The device for measuring the strength of the current is called ammeter. 2. He succeeded in performing the experiment. 3. We can increase the current by reducing the resistance of the circuit. 4. We didn’t know of his having made the experiment. 5. Monkeys get from one tree to another by swinging on lianas hundred of times a day. 6. Wash minor wounds and grazes with soap and water and follow this by applying an adhesive dressing. 7. A sprinter in a 100 meter race may perform work of very high intensity without actually using any oxygen at the time. 8. By analysing the brightness of the luminescence they estimated the amount of bacteria in the leaf. 9. The analysis of the phenomenon was very useful in helping us to understand the ways of nature and our ways of looking at it. 10. Planes and helicopters can become highly electrically charged either from flying through dust or snow or from encountering strong electric fields in clouds.
7.3. Find the participles, determine their functions and translate the sentences:
1. The channel linking the two seas is being built now. 2. Having obtained the necessary results they stopped their experimental work. 3. When studying elements Mendeleyev found that they could be divided into nine groups. 4. When writing a telegram we must use as few words as possible. 5. Being built in a new way modern houses have better facilities. 6. While waiting for him I looked through the magazines lying on the table. 7. They stayed at home refusing to go out. 8. Having passed all the examinations he left for his native town.
1. He is reading a very interesting book, don’t interrupt him. 2. She’s a famous singer. Everybody likes her singing. 3. – Where is Nick? – He’s over there, at the window reading something. 4. I must have a look at the text before reading it. 5. The reading of the poem was excellent. 6. I suggest reading it at once. 7. After having read the book we can discuss it. 8. In manufacturing goods special attention should be paid to their quality. 9. A new electron tube has been designed for generating power at microwave frequency. 10. Almost every processing industry is now exploring the use of microwave heat.
7.5. Translate the sentences paying attention to the words with ing-ending:
A. 1. The monument needs restoring. 2. The monument of what century are you restoring? 3. The monument of what century is being restored? 4. The experts restoring the monument were provided with modern equipment. 5. With the help of a magnet we can hold two metal plates together without tying them. 6. He pointed out that the assembling time of the apparatus was very short. 7. The police were informed of the criminals having appeared in the city. 8. The committee studied the problem of improving the bus service in the town without increasing the number of buses operating on the routs. 9. Increasing population of the world changes the face of the Earth. 10. Heating the substance to high temperature may change its properties. 11. Being heated to high temperature the substance considerably expanded. 12. The substance was being heated for three hours.
B. 1. Leaving the earth means moving upwards against gravity, and this requires work. 2. The moon keeps moving around the earth without slowing down considerably. 3. Before discussing the method it is necessary to get some additional information. 4. It’s a device for converting an optical image into an electrical signal. 5. They succeeded in solving the two problems. 6. His measuring of pressure was accurate. 7. They had difficulties in transmitting the signal. 8. We can improve the device by making it lighter. 9. They told us of his having solved the problem. 10. For radically improving the vehicle he was granted a patent.
LANGUAGE NOTES Инфинитив является неличной формой глагола, как причастие и герундий: он только называет действие, но не имеет лица, числа и наклонения. Перевод инфинитива на русский язык зависит от его функции в предложении:
1. Подлежащее: To test the air balloon is very important. Очень важно провести испытания воздушного шара.
2. Часть составного сказуемого: His plan was to test the air balloon. Он планировал провести испытания воздушного шара.
3. Дополнение: He decided to test the air balloon. Он решил провести испытания воздушного шара.
4. Обстоятельство: To test the air balloon he needs very accurate measuring instruments. - Ему нужны очень точные приборы для испытания воздушного шара. An oxygen atom combines two hydrogen atoms to form a molecule of water. - Молекула воды образуется при соединении атома кислорода с двумя атомами водорода.
5. Определение: The balloon to test was very large. - Испытываемый аэростат был очень большой.
6. Часть составного сказуемого со словами likely, unlikely: The air balloon is likely to be safe. - Вполне вероятно, что этот воздушный шарсовершенно безопасен. The air balloon is unlikely to be safe. - Маловероятно, что этот воздушный шар вполне безопасен.
7. Часть сложного дополнения (COMPLEX OBJECT): We know him to test air balloons. - Мы знаем, что он испытывает воздушные шары.
8. Часть сложного подлежащего (COMPLEX SUBJECT):He is known to test air balloons. - Известно, что он испытывает воздушные шары. She is said to have published the book. – Говорят, она опубликовала книгу. 8.1. Find the infinitives, determine their functions and translate the sentences:
1. To realise the idea was quite necessary. 2. They tried to realise the idea. 3. The idea to realise was rather simple. 4. To realise the idea it was necessary to get special equipment. 5 The idea is likely to be of interest. 6. We know her to realise the idea successfully. 7. The idea is known to have been realised successfully. 8. I arrived home to find that the telegram had already been received. 9. To predict the existence of an unknown phenomenon or object has always been considered a topmost achievement for the theory. 10. Ring sections of the reactor are then welded together to form a complete sphere.
8.2. Translate the sentences paying attention to the infinitives:
1. The quantity of water which is used varies with the king of product to be made. 2. They suggested performing an experiment to prove their point 3. To understand the size of a micron it may be pointed out that a particle of even 50 microns is microscopic. 4. To design plans of new buildings is the work of an architect. 5. He often forgot to register the results of experiments. 6. A thermometer is a device to show the temperature. 7. Each type of atom is known to have a name and symbol. 8. The device is unlikely to operate. 9. The device to operate was unknown to him. 10. To carry out the task they had to work for three hours.
8.3. Translate the sentences paying attention to Complex Object and Complex Subject:
A. 1. We know her to have completed the investigation. 2. The discovery is known to cause a sensation. 3. Improved reactors must be developed for the atomic power plants to become safe. 4. When electric sparks are passed though air oxygen and nitrogen combine to form oxides of nitrogen. 5. You must do your best to radically improve the device. 6. For the manuscript to be readable the symbols had to be replaced by the language elements they represent. 7. For this process to occur the surface of the powder must be oleophilic. 8. He is unlikely to participate in the game. 9. It is possible to suggest only what is likely to happen. 10. A filler is said to have a good thermal conductivity when is has a higher thermal conductivity than the mass it is mixed with.
B. 1. The discovery is likely to have been made by a group of scientists. 2. We’d like him to be invited to the party. 3. The meeting is likely to be held at the office next week. 4. She is expected to come tomorrow. 5. The article is too difficult for him to translate into English. 6. It is necessary for Tom to get there today. 7. All the books were ordered to be returned within 5 days. 8. Press on the wound firmly to quickly flatten the cut blood vessel. 9. Oil fields are unlikely to be found in that region. 10. The invention made by our scientists is known to be of great importance for agriculture. 11. Nobody wanted the meeting to be put off. 12. The expedition is believed to have reached its destination.
Цепочкой существительных называется два или более существительных, следующих в предложении подряд без предлогов между ними. Последнее существительное в цепочке является определяемым. Например:
the research programme result = the result of the programme of the research = результат программы исследования. 8.4. Analyse the attribute chains in the table below and translate them: