Reaction chamber, radiation shielding, bar magnet, cane sugar, sugar cane, genetic engineering technology, a satellite-based navigation system, unmanned probe data, a small battery-less instrument, high-reliability electronic devices.
8.6. Translate the sentences paying attention to the attribute chains:
1. This time all the observations were made with the world's largest six metre telescope. 2. We are watching a new double planet formation. 3. The motorised dolly has a low platform and a pair of drum-type ground-engaging wheels. 4. This is a new six-axle all-metal articulated tramway wagon. 5. The semiconductor thermoelectric household refrigerator is designed for artificial cooling or storage of foods in your home. 6. That was the world's first push-button controlled solid fuel central heating system. 7. The signal was transmitted to one of the 400 billion Andromeda galaxy stars. 8. To solve the problem they decided to make use of the helium-neon laser beam penetrating power. 9. Rubber or synthetic rubber balloons are used to carry aloft the many hundreds of radiosondes launched each day by various national services to take measurements in the upper atmosphere. 10. This kind of detector can also be used to give extremely informative motion picture sequences of neutron images. 11. A two-inch-diameter muscle contraction stimulator was used then. 12. Psychology and anthropology are the most clearly related to biology social sciences.
8.7. Read the text below, find attribute chains and translate them. Make the written translation of the text.
VHS Video Cassette Recorder
Before operating the unit, please read this manual thoroughly, and retain it for future reference.
Operate the unit on 220 V AC, 50 Hz.
Should any solid object or liquid fall into the cabinet, unplug the unit and have it checked by qualified personnel before operating it any further.
The unit isn't disconnected from the AC power source as long as it is connected to the wall outlet, even if the unit itself has been turned off.
Unplug the unit from the wall outlet if it is not to be used for an extensive period of time. To disconnect the cord, pull it out by the plug. Never pull the cord itself.
Recording TV Programmes
The VTR records in SP (standard play) mode only.
1. Insert a cassette. The power is turned on automatically, and the (cassette) indicator appears.
2. Turn on the TV and select the channel for VTR or select the input for the VTR.
3. Select the programme position for the station to be recorded with PROGRAMME +/— on the VTR or the wireless commander.
4. Press "REC" on the VTR or press "REC" on the wireless commander while pressing the recording auxiliary button. Recording will begin.
To stop recording press / on the VTR or "STOP" on the wireless commander.
When you want to record a programme without watching the TV,
turn off the power of the TV or colour monitor Recording takes place as normal.
NOTE: If you use a colour monitor, you cannot watch another channel during recording unless the monitor has an internal TV tuner.
You can preset up to 8 recordings as much as one year in advance. Check before setting the timer.
The date and clock must be set correctly.
Make sure that the cassette tape is long enough to record all the programmes.
Be sure that the safety tab on the cassette has not been broken off.
Suppose you want to make a recording of the station on the programme position 10 from 11 : 00 to 12 : 30 on December 9,1999.
1. Insert a cassette. The VTR is turned on automatically. Turn on the TV.
2. Press TIMER SET.
3. Select the programme position with PROGRAMME + or —. Press PROGRAMME + or — until the programme position number 10 is displayed in the display window.
4. Press NEXT. Set the day with PROGRAMME +/-. Press PROGRAMME + or — until “9” is displayed in the display window.
5. Press NEXT. Set the month with PROGRAM +/-. Press PROGRAM + or — until "12" (for December) is displayed in the display window.
6. Press NEXT. Set the hour of the start time with PROGRAM +/-. Press PROGRAM + or — until "11" is displayed in the display window. NOTE: When the month is set in the above step 5 the year will be displayed automatically.
7. Press NEXT. Set the minute with PROGRAM +/-. Press PROGRAM + or — until "00" is displayed in the display window.
8. Press NEXT. Set the end time with PROGRAM +/-, referring to steps 6 and 7.
9. Press NEXT. The indicator appears in the window, and the VTR enters the timer stand-by mode.
The unit will automatically turn on when the preset time comes and will start recording. When it completes recording, the power will automatically be turned off.
ПЕРЕВОД АБСОЛЮТНЫХ ПРИЧАСТНЫХ ОБОРОТОВ
Абсолютным причастным оборотом называется причастный оборот, имеющий подлежащее, отличное от подлежащего всего предложения. Поскольку в русском языке нет абсолютных причастных оборотов, их можно переводить несколькими способами:
The agenda being exhausted, the meeting was closed.:
1. Повестка дня была исчерпана, и собрание закрыли. (сложносочиненное предложение)
2. После того как повестка дня была исчерпана, собрание закрыли. (сложноподчиненное предложение)
3. Повестка дня была исчерпана. Собрание закрыли. (самостоятельные предложения)
Иногда абсолютный причастный оборот можно перевести с помощью русского наречия причем:
All the values are considerably higher, their mean being 6.45.
Все величины оказываются значительно более высокими, причем их среднее значение составляет 6,45. 9.1. Translate the sentences paying attention to the absolute constructions:
A. 1. A new technique having been worked out, the results improved considerably. 2. The congress being over, the delegates went home. 3. He agreed to write an article on atomic power plant safety, the problem being of considerable significance. 4. The experiment having been carried out, we started a new investigation. 5. The voltage being very low, the machine-tool would not operate properly. 6. The insulation being poor, the short circuit was practically inevitable. 7. Boron steel rods having been used, the chain reaction rate became normal. 8. Carbon dioxide from burning fuels rapidly increasing in the atmosphere, the heat is reflected back to the earth causing the so called greenhouse effect. 9. The X-ray method of examining inner organs being to a certain extent harmful, scientists have developed a new method of ultrasonic examination. 10. The possibility of projection with ultra-violet optical system being proved, the UV-Copying System CAPS could be developed.
B .1. A spacecraft being designed for a mission to Mars, we are waiting for the next favourable opportunity when Mars makes its close approach to Earth. 2. The new device being introduced, only small changes in the image would be transmitted over Picturephone lines. 3. The quality of ceramics being steadily improved, a tenfold improvement over the earlier devices was obtained. 4. Propane and butane being transported by sea, the transportation must be carried out at reduced temperatures. 5. The telescope system being in orbit, reliable remote control from the ground must be provided. 6. A highly efficient metering system being developed by Asahi, the Pentax Spotmatic camera guarantees perfect exposures automatically. 7. Having noticed the carbattery failure, electrolyte solution was immediately added. 8. The actual leak in the system having been spotted, the engine was shut off for repair. 9. The button on the controller being pressed, the automatic regenerating, process is initiated. 10. Having provided improved means for modulating electrical signals, the device performance became very effective.
C. 1. They tested various methods, with no results meeting the requirements. 2. The pump worked hard, without the level of water decreasing considerably. 3. A pre-heater is unnecessary, with the oxygen normally available. 4. The key difficulty is how agriculture could continue to use chemicals to good advantage without health hazards of drinking water nitrate pollution. 5. The machine-tool meets all the requirements with the operator having a push-button control. 6. A new gas filter was introduced with no radical change of the exhaust. 7. The power station will operate on a dual pressure steam cycle with the turbine high pressure cylinder designed to accept steam at two pressures. 8. With the experiments having being carried out successfully, they started volume production of the device. 9. With the computer having become a common business tool, the information can be stored in electronic memories and got out by pressing a button. 10. Hour after hour the seal's flippers in icy water would remain only a few degrees above zero without the animal showing any sign of discomfort.
9.2. Make the written translation of the texts below:
A. WORLD TRADE CENTRE (WTC)
The WTC was designed by Minoru Yamasaki and constructed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey as headquarters for the development of international business. Construction began in 1966 and was dedicated in April 1973.
The WT. is located on a 16 acre area and includes six buildings: two 110-story towers (One World Trade Centre and Two World Trade Centre) and four low-rise buildings all surrounding a five acre landscaped plaza.
Each of the towers is 1350 feet high, 209 feet square and contains 110 stories. Each floor is equivalent to about I acre in size.
Located atop the towers are TV and radio transmitters that serve the business and entertainment needs.
The 107th floor of the One WTC houses a restaurant whereas the 107th floor of two WTC houses the Observation Deck with floor-to-ceiling windows facing in every direction and affording a 55-mile view.
Your eye reaches as far as New York midtown with the famous skyscrapers, the New York harbour, the mighty Hudson, the Statue of Liberty and the eternal Brooklyn Bridge.
By day, the panorama is a real life-drama played out before your eyes. By night, it sparkles with its own jewellery of lights and stars.
Wind and weather permitting you can reach even greater heights. Take the escalator up from the Deck to the Rooftop Promenade above the 110th floor. You’ll be standing on the world’s highest outdoor observation platform.
The Deck is open daily from 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. from October through May, and 9:30 a.m. to 11:30 p.m. from June through September, for more information call (212) 435 - 7377.
B. THE ORIGIN OF THE MOON
For thousands of years people have seen the Moon above them and probably wondered what its nature and origin were. So far these questions remain unanswered although many of the Moon's mysteries have been unravelled. Of all the hypotheses of the Moon's origin there seem to be three most likely.
According to the “fission” or “escape” theory, the Moon is a “daughter” of the earth. This theory suggests that a single large planet formed where the earth is now; and as it cooled, it began to spin so rapidly that it flattened into a disk-shape, then into a sausage-shape, and finally split into two parts. The larger part became the earth, and the smaller part was flung out into orbit to become the moon.
The “capture” theory views the moon as a “girl-friend” of the earth. The moon formed separately in another part of the solar system, possibly in the asteroid belt, or perhaps outside the solar system entirely. Some time after it was formed, it passed close enough to the earth to be captured by the earth's gravity and held in orbit around it. This theory doesn't explain how the moon formed; it just explains how it got to where it is now.
The “double planet” theory suggests that the earth and moon condensed into separate bodies as the solar system was forming. The moon is thus a “sister” of the earth; both bodies formed close together, and they remained close together ever since.
None of the three theories was particularly convincing, the explanations being uncertain and unlikely.
By 1957, when the Space Age was inaugurated with the launching of the Russian satellite Sputnik 1, theories about the moon had reached the limit imposed by earthbound observations. Any further advances in lunar study would require something new in the history of science: a massive, all-out effort to study the moon at close range, to put instruments on its surface, and to bring its rocks back to earth for analysis, that is direct exploration of the moon's surface and depths.
In 1959 such investigations were begun with the moon flight of the Russian automatic probe Luna 2. One of the most important results of the flight was that it proved the absence of a magnetic field on the moon. Consequently it at once became clear that a cosmonaut could not use a compass on the moon's surface.
Since that time dozens of space probes have reached the moon and near moon space, relaying a mass of important information about our natural satellite. Rock specimens have been studied, delivered by Russian Luna automatic probes and the American Apollo expedition.
C. “WHITE COSMOS”
Members of Russian Antarctic expedition carried out large-scale plans from seven stations of the icy continent. The 30th Antarctic expedition included scientists who were engaged in special medical research, the purpose of which was to get a better understanding of man's adaptation to an environment with extreme conditions.
This is a highly complicated psycho-physiological process, which is affected by two main groups of factors, — climatic and social. At the Vostok intercontinental station a maximum of cold — minus 89,2°C — was registered. But the influence of climate on man is determined not only by temperature. There is such an indicator as coefficient of weather severity which takes into account temperature, wind velocity and humidity.
On the coast of the Antarctic, frosts are not so severe as in the depths of the continent. But because of hurricane winds (their velocity reaches 60 or more meters per second) the coefficient of weather severity is very high.
On high ground to climatic factors one has to add hypoxia — shortage of oxygen — because of lowered atmospheric pressure. Long periods of polar day and, especially, polar night have a considerable affect on a person's psychological state.
Things are much more complicated as regards the system of human relations, which is under strong pressure from subjective factors. Moreover, the pressure is the stronger, the smaller, the isolated group. Conditions in winter in the Antarctic can be likened to a long-term space flight. Therefore expedition members are also carefully selected according to the criterion of psychological compatibility.
The Antarctic, the earth's giant fridge, may be called “white cosmos”: its environment is sterile. In normal conditions, especially in big cities, the human organism is constantly under attack by viruses and other patho-genes. The continuous defense against invasion by infections leads to a corresponding immunity. But in the sterile environment of the Antarctic the organism's resistance lowers which results in an untypical flow of diseases, especially at the end of the winter. It takes a longer time for wounds to heal and for fractures to knit.
Hypoxia at a high altitude also affects the flow of diseases and postoperation treatment. For instance, in the conditions of hypoxia pneumonia can be effectively treated only with a supply of oxygen.
And yet these difficulties and dangers detract little from the desire of scientists to visit the white continent. Many people go there over and over again. In 1985 Dmitry Maksutov who headed the 30th expedition went to the Antarctic for the sixth time and he was then 60 years old.
транскрипция имен собственных
Звуки, отсутствующие в русском языке:
[w] буквами “в”, “уа”, “уо”, “уэ”, например, Уэльс (Wales), Вебстер (Webster)
[h] буквами “х”, “г”, например, Грейт Холл (Great Hall), Гарри (Harry)
 буквами “нг”, например, Силвер Спринг (Silver Spring)
Если имя собственное не является широко известным для русского читателя, рекомендуется также указать в скобках его английское написание.
Звуки, отсутствующие в английском языке:
[йа] буквами “ya”, например, Yakutiya (Якутия)
[йе] буквами “yе”, например, Yekaterinburg (Екатеринбург)
[йу] буквами “yu”, например, Yury Gagarin (Юрий Гагарин)
[х] буквами “kh”, например, Kharkov (Харьков)
[тс] буквами “ts”, например, Lipetsk (Липецк)
[ч] буквами “ch”, например, Shevchenko (Шевченко)
[ш] буквами “sh”, например, Shevchenko (Шевченко)
[щ] буквами “shch”, например, Roshchino (Рощино)
некоторые распространенные сокращения
g; gm; gr; grm г
c; cm см
sf; sq ft кв. фут
А. С. (alternating current) переменный ток
D. C. (direct current) постоянный ток
c/s (cycles per second, Herz) колебаний в с (герц)
Hp (horse power) л.с. (лошадиных сил)
psi (pounds per square inch) фунтов на кв. дюйм
r. p. m. (revolutions per min.) оборотов в минуту
hr (hour) час
e. g. (Lat. exempli grata = for example) например
i. e. (Lat. id est = that is) то есть
ca (Lat. circa = about) около, приблиз.
cf. (Lat. confero = compare) сравните
P. C.; pct; % (Lat. per cent = per a hundred) процент
amu (atomic mass unit) атомная единица массы
некоторые “ложные друзья переводчика”
аккорд (musical chord)
аккумулятор (storage battery)
actualadj (действительный, настоящий)
актуальный (present, current, topical)
advocaten (защитник, сторонник)
адвокат (solicitor, barrister)
аффект (fit of passion)
агитировать (to campaign, to persuade)
alimentaryadj (пищевой, питательный)
амбициозный (pretentious, pompous)
apartmentn (комната, квартира)
аппартаменты (luxury apartment)
argumentn (довод, спор)
artistn (художник, мастер)
барак (temporary building)
basinn (таз, миска, бухта)
бассейн (swimming pool)
batonn (дириж. палочка)
батон (thin oval loaf)
cabinn (салон самолета)
cabinetn (небольшой шкаф)
кабинет (office, study)
камера (cell, ward, chamber)
шеф (chief, leader, boss)
complexionn (цвет лица)
комплекция (build, construction, physique)
композитор (composer of music)
конкурент (competitor, rival)
conserve n (сохранение)
консервы (tinned food)
конструкция (design, structure)
контроль (inspection, supervision)
cravatn (широкий галстук)
delicateadj (тонкий, изящный)
деликатный (tactful, polite)
drapen (портьера, драпировка)
драп (thick cloth)
дрессура (training, taming)
fabricn (структура, материя)
герб (national emblem)
ordinationn (посвящение в духовный сан)
ординатура (post graduate course in internal medicine)
оригинал (eccentric person)
pasta n (макаронные изделия)
patheticadj (трогательный, жалкий)
патетический (full of pathos, passionate)
prospectn (вид, перспектива)
проспект (avenue, boulevard)
протекция (favouritism, patronage)
racen (состязание в скорости)
рецепт (prescription, recipe)
reclaim v (исправить)
рекламировать (to advertise)
резиденция (seat of Royal family)
resident n (постоянный житель)
резидент (heat of an office)
реванш (return match (sports)
revisionn (пересмотр, повторение)
scenen (место действия)
сцена (theatre stage)
сценарий (script, scenario)
sentencen (грам. предложение)
смокинг (dinner jacket)
спекулировать (to profiteer, gamble, to misuse)
cимпатичный (pretty, pleasant)
techniquen (оборудование, технология)
техника (engineering, technology, equipment, machinery)