Программа дисциплины «Роль Восточной Азии в контексте региональных и глобальных проблем»

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түріПрограмма дисциплины
Правительство Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования
Национальный исследовательский университет
"Высшая школа экономики"

Факультет мировой экономики и мировой политики

Школа востоковедения

Программа дисциплины

«Роль Восточной Азии в контексте региональных и глобальных проблем»/Role of East Asia in Context of Regional and Global Problems»
для направления 41.04.03 «Востоковедение и африканистика»

подготовки магистра

Автор программы:

Захаров В.Ю., ст.преподаватель кафедры цивилизационного развития Востока; vzakharov@rambler.ru

Одобрена на заседании кафедры цивилизационного развития Востока

«___»____________ 20 г

Зав. кафедрой А.А. Маслов ______________
Рекомендована академическим советом ОП «Востоковедение и африканистика»

«___» ________20 г

Председатель Д.А. Худяков_____________________

Утверждена УС факультета мировой экономики и мировой политики

«___»_____________20 г.

Ученый секретарь Т.Б. Коваль_______________________

Москва, 2014
Настоящая программа не может быть использована другими подразделениями университета и другими вузами без разрешения кафедры-разработчика программы.
Master's Program in Sociopolitical Development and the Challenges of Modern East Asia

Role of East Asia in Context of Regional and Global Problems

Senior Lecturer Vladimir Zakharov

Moscow, 2014

No part of this program may be reproduced, copied, transmitted or used by other institutions in any forms or by any means without the prior permission of its author
Instructor:Senior Lecturer Vladimir Zakharov.

e-mail: vzakharov@rambler.ru

General Schedule:
Overview of the course

This course focuses on the main development of political and economic situation in Central Asia and in its countries. In the same time it provides a general design for prospects of Regional Security. In general we will summarize bilateral and multilateral relations between regional states as well the impact of globalization to this region and the role played by external actors. In this course we will stress on most important functional features of the emerging regional order: economics, globalization, and regional security.

This course is mainly based on the students creative work in finding and reading new materials about present day policies and it means that for each class you have to read a lot to understand the different approaches to international Relations in Central Asia.
This course examines Central Asia as a pivotal regional system in the international context, focusing on security, economic ties and transnational global relations.
The course will draw upon theories and questions found in the international relations literature to examine whether Central Asia is a coherent region. We will provide an overview to the general theory of international relations in this Region, explain the legacy of history for the region. Attention is paid to continuities and discontinuities in state formation and foreign policy, regime types, and political culture. We will also cover developments in the international relations of Central Asia the end of the Cold War. It also stresses on the case studies of regional conflicts, development of regional organizations (NGOs, etc.), non-state actors, analyses most important bilateral relations with Russia, China, USA, Japan, India, China-Korea and multilateral relations inside and outside Political and Trade Bodies.


We will also discuss the flashpoints in Asia Pacific international politics, e.g. territorial claims, battle for resourses, denuclearization, conflict resolution and the search for the new architecture of Central Asia. We will analyze the interplay between world and regional powers, alongside the foreign policies of the main actors in the region. Special attention is also given to trends in centralasian regionalism (politics, security, economy).

Special attention will be given the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as a new type multifaceted cooperation regional body.
Aims of the course:

  • provide an introduction to the domestic and international politics of main actors in Central Asia;

  • provide an overview of the regional policies and bilateral relationships of the major powers

  • examine regional organizations and the changing nature of regional order;

  • discuss the main conflictual dynamics in the region (Energy, Ecology and Water problems, Prospects for solution of territorial issues);

  • discuss post-Cold War continuities and changes.

  • Provide a detailed introduction to the main concepts and trend of the development of foreign policy in Central Asia

  • Discuss the key issues of internal development in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan and their foreign policy, including role of Russia, China, USA, EU and regional cooperation and tensions in the region

  • Compare and contrast comprehensive security with other concepts of

Learning outcomes and competences

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able

  • Identify the geographical region of Central Asia and role played there by regional political and trade organizations.

  • understand the nature of conflicts between Central Asia countries and main approaches for its solving

  • be able to examine main trends in the foreign policy of regional powers and the influence of Russia, China and USA in the region;

  • to describe the specifics of each state in Central Asia and summarize fundamental problems of this region in the context of international relations

  • be familiar with the political systems of the Central Asia countries;

  • explain the linkages between local, regional and global developments;

  • describe possible applications of comprehensive security concepts in the Central Asia

  • analyze the foreign policies of Central Asia states;

  • have an understanding of the factors facilitating and hindering regional security and cooperation.

  • to summarize political and security trends in Central Asia, evaluate interests of key countries, and explain causes of conflicts, current development and issues.

  • Recognize the political and trade organizations that make up the region and their historic role in making the region the place that it is today.

  • understand the principal regional organizations relevant to security.

Structure of the course

This course is divided into several sessions, each session could comprise from one to three classes. Each session is divided into part: short introductory lecture by instructor and the discussion. Discussion could be presented in two forms: as a group discussion or as a presentation by one or two students and the discussion after this presentation.

Participation and attendance

This is a graduate course and given the nature of the course students are expected to mandatory attend all classes and to actively participate. As well, preparing the assigned readings is essential, due to the complexity of the subject and the fact that the amount of material covered every week is quite large. If you are late in class more that for 20 minutes without reasonable explanation you grade for participation could be degraded (Instructor will formally inform you about this)

If you’ve missed a class you have to inform instructor before (!) the class and explain the formal reason for that. For each unexcused absence thereafter you have to write an overview using the readings provided for the missed class (2-3 pages). You could miss no more that two classes (sessions). In other case your final grad will be decreased. You are responsible for keeping the professor informed of any situation that prevents you from attending class.

Class participation will constitute 25% of the final grade.


Readings is very important for this course. All classes will be built around discussion after reading recommended materials. It means that if you won’t read these materials and can not discuss it content and authors’ approaches to the problems you will get a very low final grade.

Students are expected to complete all the assigned readings on time and contribute to class discussions. In addition, each class one or two students will be assigned to give a short commentary related to the class’s topic and/or readings.

We will have group discussions and “strategic game”. The participation is very important for the final grade. Asking questions to instructor as well to each other (even the same question twice ) is expected, indeed strongly encouraged.

Plagiarism and Academic Dishonesty

Plagiarism is a serious academic offense and it will not be tolerated. Plagiarism is the theft of someone else’s intellectual property or presenting another person’s work as one’s own. Plagiarism is "a piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work." This includes ideas as well as specific phrases, sentences or paragraphs. To avoid plagiarism, it is essential that you use proper quotation and citation in all the written work you submit for the course. You are responsible for handing in original work and for citing all of your information sources.


Cumulative grade :

Attendance and Class Participation - 30%

Presentation - 40%

Group Discussion and readings – 30%

Final mark=0.5 cumulative grade+0.5 grade for the exam.

10 point grading system

10,9, 8







failing grade

Précis should be due in accordance with Your professor opinion

Course syllabus



Total class hours




Practical classes


Session 1.Centrl Asia as a coherent region

The definition and structure of the regions

State formation and regional order: Central Asia in the twentieth century

Regionalism and Integration Theory

Regional Dynamics
After-Class Readings

Blank, Stephen J. (2013). Central Asia After 2014. ISBN 978-1-58487-593-2. 

  • Chow, Edward. "Central Asia's Pipelines: Field of Dreams and Reality", in Pipeline Politics in Asia: The Intersection of Demand, Energy Markets, and Supply Routes. National Bureau of Asian Research, 2010.

  • Dani, A.H. and V.M. Masson, eds. UNESCO History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Paris: UNESCO, 1992.

  • Gorshunova. Olga V. Svjashennye derevja Khodzhi Barora..., ( Sacred Trees of Khodzhi Baror: Phytolatry and the Cult of Female Deity in Central Asia) in Etnoragraficheskoe Obozrenie, 2008, n° 1, pp. 71–82. ISSN 0869-5415. (Russian).

  • Klein, I.; Gessner, U.; Kuenzer, C.. "Regional land cover mapping and change detection in Central Asia using MODIS time-series", in [Applied Geography], volume 35, issue 1-2, pp. 219–234, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.06.016

  • Mandelbaum, Michael, ed. Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.

  • Marcinkowski, M. Ismail. Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Pakistan and Early Ottoman Turkey. Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003.






Session 2.

Rising political and economic role of Сentral Asia in global dimension

Geographical, Civilization, political and economic patterns in Asia, Eurasia. Introductory review of the common trends of political and economic integration in Central Asia; prospects for building up a new security architecture in Central Asia.

After-class readings:

  • Olcott, Martha Brill. Central Asia's New States: Independence, Foreign policy, and Regional security. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.

  • Phillips, Andrew; James, Paul (2013). "National Identity between Tradition and Reflexive Modernisation: The Contradictions of Central Asia". National Identities 3 (1): pp. 23–35. 

  • Hasan Bulent Paksoy. ALPAMYSH: Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule. Hartford: AACAR, 1989. http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-1/

  • Soucek, Svatopluk. A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

  • Rall, Ted. Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East? New York: NBM Publishing, 2006.

  • Stone, L.A. The International Politics of Central Eurasia (272 pp). Central Eurasian Studies On Line: Accessible via the Web Page of the International Eurasian Institute for Economic and Political Research: http://www.iicas.org/forumen.htm

  • Weston, David. Teaching about Inner Asia, Bloomington, Indiana: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies, 1989






Session 3. Kazakhastan, General political, economic and social design.

What are the key constitutional, executive and juridical rules and their interaction, ongoing and upcoming reforms of political institutions, role of the CPC,PLA and NGO.

  • After-Class Readings:

  • Alexandrov, Mikhail (1999). Uneasy Alliance: Relations Between Russia and Kazakhstan in the Post-Soviet Era, 1992–1997. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30965-5. 

  • Clammer, Paul; Kohn, Michael & Mayhew, Bradley (2004). Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-86450-296-7. 

  • Cummings, Sally (2002). Kazakhstan: Power and the Elite. London: Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-854-1. 

  • Demko, George (1997). The Russian Colonization of Kazakhstan. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0380-2. 

  • Fergus, Michael & Jandosova, Janar (2003). Kazakhstan: Coming of Age. London: Stacey International. ISBN 1-900988-61-5. 






Session 3. Kazakhstan. Main factors contributing to evolution of Kazakhstan foreign policy.

Bilateral relations with regional and global partners – Russia, China, USA, EU, India. Political and economical Interaction with regional and international organizations.


  • George, Alexandra (2001). Journey into Kazakhstan: The True Face of the Nazarbayev Regime. Lanham: University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-1964-9. 

  • Martin, Virginia (2000). Law and Custom in the Steppe. Richmond: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1405-7. 

  • Nazarbayev, Nursultan (2001). Epicenter of Peace. Hollis, NH: Puritan Press. ISBN 1-884186-13-0. 

  • Nazpary, Joma (2002). Post-Soviet Chaos: Violence and Dispossession in Kazakhstan. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-1503-8. 

  • Olcott, Martha Brill (2002). Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled Promise. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-87003-189-9. 

  • Rall, Ted (2006). Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East?. New York: NBM. ISBN 1-56163-454-9. 

  • Robbins, Christopher (2007). In Search of Kazakhstan: The Land That Disappeared. London: Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-86197-868-4. 

  • Rosten, Keith (2005). Once in Kazakhstan: The Snow Leopard Emerges. New York: iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-32782-6. 

  • Thubron, Colin (1994). The Lost Heart of Asia. New York: HarperCollins






Session 5. Uzbekistan, General political, economic and social design. Political institutions, economic and social situation, ongoing reforms.

After-Class Readings

  • Chasing the Sea: Lost Among the Ghosts of Empire in Central Asia by Tom Bissell

  • A Historical Atlas of Uzbekistan by Aisha Khan

  • The Modern Uzbeks From the 14th century to the Present: A Cultural History by Edward A. Allworth

  • Nationalism in Uzbekistan: Soviet Republic's Road to Sovereignty by James Critchlow

  • Paul Krugman (1994): “The Myth of Asia’s Miracle.”

  • Ben Fine (1999): “The Developmental State is Dead - Long Live Social Capital?”

Joseph Wong (2004): “The Adaptive Developmental State in East Asia.”






Session 6. Uzbekistan. Main factors contributing to evolution of Uzbekistan foreign policy.

  • Odyssey Guide: Uzbekistan by Calcum Macleod and Bradley Mayhew

  • Uzbekistan: Heirs to the Silk Road by Johannes Kalter and Margareta Pavaloi

  • Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East? by Ted Rall

  • Murder in Samarkand: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on Terror by Craig Murray

  • Tamerlane's Children: Dispatches from contemporary Uzbekistan by Robert Rand

  • White Gold: the true cost of cotton, Still in the Fields, and Slave Nation. Printed reports documenting environmental and social abuses in Uzbekistan's cotton fields by the Environmental Justice Foundation






Session 7 Kirgizstan

Political institutions, economical systems, role of NGO and ongoing reforms, international policy.


  • Historical Dictionary of Kyrgyzstan by Rafis Abazov

  • Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia's Island of Democracy? by John Anderson

  • Kyrgyzstan: The Growth and Influence of Islam in the Nations of Asia and Central Asia by Daniel E. Harmon

  • Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew

  • Odyssey Guide: Kyrgyz Republic by Ceri Fairclough, Rowan Stewart and Susie Weldon

  • Politics of Language in the Ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan by Jacob M. Landau and Barbara Kellner-Heinkele. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-472-11226-5

  • Kyrgyzstan: Traditions of Nomads by V. Kadyrov, Rarity Ltd., Bishkek, 2005. ISBN 9967-424-42-7





Session 8. Tajikistan

Political institutions, economical systems, role of NGO and ongoing reforms, international policy.
After-Class Readings:

  • Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan by Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzadeh

  • Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of Central Asia by Monica Whitlock

  • Tajikistan: Disintegration or Reconciliation by Shirin Akiner

  • Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence by Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza Djalili and Frederic Grare

  • Tajikistan and the High Pamirs by Robert Middleton, Huw Thomas and Markus Hauser, Odyssey Books, Hong Kong 2008 (ISBN 978-9-622177-73-4)

  • Majority Minoritized by Government: Muslims in Tajikistan (analysis) by Dr. Ruslan Kurbanov, OnIslam.net. May 19, 2012.





Session 9. Turkmenistan

Political institutions, economical systems, role of NGO and ongoing reforms, international policy.
After-Class Readings:

  • Bradt Travel Guide: Turkmenistan by Paul Brummell

  • Historical Dictionary of Turkmenistan by Rafis Abazov

  • Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew

  • The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia by Peter Hopkirk

  • Tradition and Society in Turkmenistan: Gender, Oral Culture and Song by Carole Blackwell

  • Tribal Nation: The Making of Soviet Turkmenistan by Adrienne Lynn Edgar

  • Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus by Robert D. Kaplan

  • Unknown Sands: Journeys Around the World's Most Isolated Country by John W. Kropf

  • Rall, Ted. "Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East?" New York: NBM Publishing, 2006.

  • Theroux, Paul, "Letter from Turkmenistan, The Golden Man, Saparmyrat Nyyazow’s reign of insanity" New Yorker, 28 May 2007

  • Jean-Baptiste Jeangène Vilmer, Turkménistan, Paris, Non Lieu, 2009





Session 10. Flashpoints and Conflict resolution in Modern Central Asia

  • Military and economic concerns for Asia

  • Territorial claims

  • Crisis in the Taiwan Straits

Zhang Tuosheng. Territorial Disputes: Compromise, Co-operate, And Keep Conversing // Global Asia Vol. 6, No. 2, summer 2011, 42-45

Avery Goldstein & Edward D. Mansfield When Fighting Ends Global Asia Vol. 6, No. 2, summer 2011, pp. 8-17




Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Problems of security – terrorism, extremism, separatism. Political and economic interaction, ongoing reforms, external police. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization – trends for multifaceted interaction. Afghan problem.


  • Kalra, Prajakti and Saxena, Siddharth "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Prospects of Development in Eurasia Region" Turkish Policy Quarterly, Vol 6. No.2, 2007

  • Sznajder, Ariel Pablo, "China's Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Strategy", University of California Press, May 2006

  • Oresman, Matthew, "Beyond the Battle of Talas: China's Re-emergence in Central Asia" PDF (4.74 MiB), National Defence University Press, August 2004

  • Gill, Bates and Oresman, Matthew, China's New Journey to the West: Report on China's Emergence in Central Asia and Implications for U.S. Interests, CSIS Press, August 2003

  • Fels, Enrico (2009), Assessing Eurasia's Powerhouse. An Inquiry into the Nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Winkler Verlag: Bochum. ISBN 978-3-89911-107-1

  • Yom, Sean L. (2002). "Power Politics in Central Asia: The Future of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". Harvard Asia Quarterly 6 (4) 48–54.

  • Stakelbeck, Frederick W., Jr. (August 8, 2005). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". FrontPageMagazine.com.

  • Navrozov, Lev. (February 17, 2006). "The Sino-Russian 'Shanghai Cooperation Organisation'"[dead link]. NewsMax.com.

  • Daly, John. (July 19, 2001). "'Shanghai Five' expands to combat Islamic radicals". Jane's Terrorism & Security Monitor.

  • Colson, Charles. (August 5, 2003). "Central Asia: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Makes Military Debut". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

  • Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (July 18, 2001). "The Russia-China Friendship and Cooperation Treaty: A Strategic Shift in Eurasia?". The Heritage Foundation.

  • Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (October 24, 2005). "Competition over Eurasia: Are the U.S. and Russia on a Collision Course?". The Heritage Foundation.

  • John Keefer Douglas, Matthew B. Nelson, and Kevin Schwartz; "Fueling the Dragon's Flame: How China's Energy Demands Affect its Relationships in the Middle East".  PDF (162 KiB), United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission, October 2006.

  • Baris Adibelli. "The Eurasia Strategy of China" IQ Publishing House, İstanbul, 2007.

  • Baris ADIBELLI, " The Great Game in Eurasian Geopolitics", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul, 2008.

  • Baris Adibelli, "Turkey-China Relations since the Ottoman Period", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul,2007.

  • Baris Adibelli, The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Dream of Turkey, Cumhuriyet Strateji,İstanbul, 2007.

  • Baris ADIBELLI, "Greater Eurasia Project", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul,2006.

  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: a vehicle for human rights violations FIDH 2012

  • Пань Гуан, Ху Цзянь, 21 шицзи дэ ди игэ синь син цюйюй хэцзщ цзучжи – Дуй Шанхай хэцзо цзцчжи вэ цзунхэ яьцзю, Бэйцзин 2006

  • Чжунго гоцзи дивэй баого, Бэйцзинб 2009

  • Цюанцю нэнъюань цицзюй, Бэйзиню 2009

David Kerr, Central Asian and Russian perpectives on China strategic emergence, Washington,2010




Session 12. Toward a new Regional order in Central Asia

Economic regionalism in Central Asia. Competition and Primacy, isolation and integration.

Nonstate Actors (NSAs) in Asia

Global and Regional Interstate Organizations in Asia

Wu Xinbo Building Closer Ties: Economic Regionalism’s Impact on Security //global asia Vol. 6, No. 2, summer 2011, 24-29

Alexander L. Vuving. What Regional Order for the Asia-Pacific? China’s Rise, Primacy Competition, and Inclusive Leadership, From APEC 2011 to APEC 2012: American and Russian Perspectives on Asia-Pacific Security and Cooperation. Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2012.pp. 213-224

Keith Dinnie. More Than Tourism: The Challenges of Nation Branding in Asia // Global Asia Vol. 7, No. 3, Fall 2012, pp. 13-17

Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century: The Emergence Of Modern Pacific Asia, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Westview Press, 1998, p. 507-551





Session 13. Regional cooperation and perspective development within the region

Forms of Cooperation in NE Asia

Military and economic concerns for Asia. Japan-China-US Strategic Dialogue. Transregional Linkages and Regional Dynamics: The NE Asian Regional Economy. Battle for Resources and cooperation

NGOs and block-building strategy

Hitoshi Tanaka. Asia Uniting: Many Tiers, One Goal // Global Asia Vol. 5, No. 1 8-11, pp . 17-21

Avery Goldstein & Edward D. Mansfield When Fighting Ends // Global Asia Vol. 6, No. 2, summer 2011, pp. 8-17

Yukiko Fukagawa. Asia Is Weathering the Global Economic Storm, But Can It Do Better?

// Global Asia Vol. 7, No. 3, Fall 2012, pp. 78-85

An Enduring But Elusive Idea: Peace Through Cooperation // Global Asia Vol. 7, No. 3, Fall 2012, pp. 108-113

Danielle Cohen & Jonathan Kirshner Myth-Telling: The Cult of Energy Insecurity and China-US Relations // Global Asia Vol. 6, No. 2, summer 2011pp. 38-41








Questions for Study and Group Discussion (examples):

Main trends in development of international relations and integration process in Asia and Central Asia

General Factors, influencing Security in Ctntal Asie.

Common trends of political and economic integration in Central Asia

Prospects for building up a new security architecture in Central Asia

Main political and economic integration organizations and for a in Central Pacific

Efforts of China for building up security system along its North border and its commitments ti the SCO

Territorial conflicts in Central Asia

Political, economic and social situation in countries of Central Asia

Main trends in bilateral relations between countries of the region and its repercussion on their interaction in international political and trade blocs

Present situation in sino-russian bilateral relations and its influence on cooperation in regional bodies

Key interests of US, China, Japan and Russia in Central Asia

Problems of security in Central Asia

Shanghai cooperation organization

Central-Asian countries and international organizations

Précis Assignment

A précis is short and concise summary of a scholarly book, approximately 1000 words in length.

1. A précis is not a book review or a critique. A précis should capture the essence of a longer argument, summarizing the argument, theory and data presented by the work's author.

2. You can criticize, approve, agree or disagree with the shown material. In any case essay should have a critical design and reflect your independent thinking. Any thesis or statement should be proved by historical or socio-cultural analysis.

3. It’s better to concentrate in several most important ideas than to try to write “in general”. Be brief, laconic, and specific in developing your ideas

4. Good English is mostly welcomed.

Précis should be due with respect of your personal agreement with Your lecturer
You can ask for the recommended book from the instructor or you can propose the book by yourself
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