Настоящее, прошедшее и будущее время в английском языке с учетом категорий временной отнесенности и длительности.
EXERCISES 30.1 Write sentences with “might”.
(it's possible that I'll go to the cinema) I might go to the cinema.
(it's possible that I'll see you tomorrow) I might see you tomorrow.
(it's possible that Ann will forget to phone) Ann might forget to phone.
(it's possible that it will snow today) It might snow today.
(it's possible that I'll be late tonight) I might be late tonight.
Write sentences with “might not”.
(it's possible that Mary will not be here) Mary might not be here.
(it's possible that I won't have time to meet you) I might not have time to meet you.
30.2 Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas but you are not sure. Choose from the list and write sentences with “I might”: fish, go away, Italy, Monday, new car, taxi.
Where are you going for your holidays?
I'm not sure. I might go away.
What are you doing at the weekend?
I don't know. I might go fishing with my friend.
When will you see Ann again?
I'm not sure. I might see her on Monday.
What are you going to have for dinner?
I don't know. I might have some meat.
How are you going to get home tonight?
I'm not sure. I might take a taxi.
I hear you won some money. What are you going to do with it?
I haven't decided yet. I might go to Italy.
30.3 You ask Bill questions about his plans. Sometimes he is sure but usually he is not sure.
1. Are you playing tennis tomorrow?
Yes, in the afternoon.
2. Are you going out in the evening?
3. Are you going to get up early?
4. Are you working tomorrow?
No, I'm not.
5. Will you be at home tomorrow morning?
6. Are you going to watch television?
7. Are-you going out in the afternoon?
Yes, I am.
8. Are you going shopping?
Now write about Bill. Use might where necessary.
1. He is playing tennis tomorrow afternoon.
2. He might go out in the evening.
3. He might get up early.
4. He isn’t working tomorrow.
5. He might be at home tomorrow morning.
6. He might watch television.
7. He is going out in the afternoon.
8. He might go shopping.
30.4 Write three things that you might do tomorrow.
1. I might read my favorite book.
2. I might clean my room
3. I might listen to the music.
31.2 Complete these sentences. Use can or can't + one of these verbs:
come, find, hear, see, speak.
I'm sorry but we can’t go to your party next Saturday.
I like this hotel room. You can see the mountains from the window.
You are speaking very quietly. I can’t hear you.
I lave you seen my bag? I can’t find it.
Catherine got the job because she can speak five languages.
31.3 Complete these sentences. Use can't or couldn't + one of these verbs:
eat, decide, find, go, go, sleep.
I was tired but I couldn’t sleep.
I wasn't hungry yesterday. I couldn’t eat my dinner.
Лип doesn't know what to do. She can’t decide.
I wanted to speak to Martin yesterday but I couldn’t find him.
Jim can’t go to the concert next Saturday. He has to work.
Paula couldn’t go to the meeting last week. She was ill.
32.1 Complete the sentences. Use must + one of these verbs: he, go, go, learn, meet, wash, win. 1. We must go to the bank today. We haven't got any money.
2. Marilyn is a very interesting person. You must meet her.
3. My hands are dirty. I must wash them.
4. You must learn to drive. It will be very useful.
5. I must go to the post office. I need some stamps.
6. The game tomorrow is very important for us. We must win.
7. You can't always have things immediately. You must be patient.
32.2 Put in I must or I had to.
1. I had to go to the bank yesterday to get some money.
2. It's late I must go now.
3. I don't usually work on Saturdays but last Saturday I had to work.
4. I must get up early tomorrow. I've got a lot to do.
5. I went to London by train last week. The train was full and I had to stand all the way.
6. I was nearly late for my appointment this morning I had to run to get there on time.
7. I forgot to phone David yesterday. I must phone him later today.
32.3 Complete the sentences. Use mustn't or needn't + one of these verbs: clean, forget, hurry, lose, wait, write.
The windows aren't very dirty. You needn’t clean them.
We have a lot of time. We needn’t hurry.
Keep these documents in a safe place. You mustn’t lose them.
I'm not ready yet but you mustn’t wait for me. You can go now and I'll come later.
We mustn’t forget to turn off the lights before we leave.
I mustn’t write the letter now. I can do it tomorrow.
32.4 Find the sentences with the same meaning.
1. We can leave the meeting early.
A We must stay until the end.
2. We must leave the meeting early.
В We couldn't stay until the end.
3. We mustn't leave the meeting early.
С We can't stay until the end.
4. We needn't leave the meeting early.
D We needn't stay until the end.
5. We had to leave the meeting early.
E We can stay until the end.
32.5 Put in must / had to / mustn't / needn't.
You needn’t go. You can stay here if you want.
It's a fantastic film. You must see it.
We've got enough food, so we needn’t go shopping.
We didn't have any food yesterday, so we had to go shopping.
I want to know what happened. You must tell me.
You mustn’t tell Sue what happened. I don't want her to know.
I must hurry or I'll be late.
'Why were you so late?' 'I had to wait half an hour for a bus.'
We must decide now. We can decide later.
33.3 You ask a friend for advice. Write questions with “Do you think I should ?”
1 You are in a shop. You are trying on a jacket, (buy?)
You ask your friend: ...Do you think I should buy this jacket?
2 You can't drive, (learn?)
You ask your friend: Do you think I should learn to drive?
3 You don't like your job. (get another job?)
You ask your friend: Do you think I should get another job?
4 You are going to have a party, (invite Gary?)
You ask your friend: Do you think I should invite Gary? 33.4 Write sentences with I think... should ... or I don't think... should ....
It’s late. (go home now) I think we should go home now.
That coat is too big for you. (buy it) I don’t think you shouldbuy it.
You don't need your car. (sell it) I think you should sell it.
Diane needs a rest. (have a holiday) I think we should have a holiday.
Sally and Colin are too young. (get married) I don’t think they should get married.
You're not well this morning. (go to work) I don’t think you should go to work.
James isn't well today. (go to the doctor) I think he should go to the doctor.
The hotel is too expensive for us. (stay there) I don’t think we should stay here.
33.5 What do you think? Write sentences with should.
I think people should be patient.
I think everybody should get education.
1 think animals should be free.
I don't think everybody should be famous.
I think I should be attentive.
33.1 Complete the sentences. Use you should + one of these verbs: clean, go, take, visit, watch, wear.
When you play tennis, .you should watch the ball.
It's late and you're very tired you should go to bed.
3 You should clean your teeth twice a day.
If you have time, you should visit the Science Museum. It's very interesting.
When you're driving, you should wear a seat belt.
It's too far to walk from here to the station we should take a taxi.
23.1 Put in is/are/do/does.
Do you work in the evenings?
Where are they going?
Why are you looking at me?
4 Does Bill live near you?
5 Do you like cooking?
6 Is the sun shining?
7 What time do the shops close?
8 Is Ann working today?
9 What does this word mean?
10 Are you feeling all right?
23.2 Put in am not / isn't / aren't / don't / doesn't. All these sentences are negative.
Tom doesn’t work in the evenings.
I'm very tired. I don’t want to go out this evening.
I'm very tired. I am not going out this evening.
George isn’t working this week. He's on holiday.
My parents are usually at home. They don’t go out very often.
Barbara has travelled a lot but she doesn’t speak any foreign languages.
You can turn off the television. I am not watching it.
There's a party next week but we are not going.
23.3 Put in was/were/did/have/has.
Where have your shoes made?
Did you go out last night?
What were you doing at 10.30?
Where was your mother born?
Has Barbara gone home?
What time did she go?
When were these houses built?
Has Jim arrived yet?
Why did you go home early?
How long have they been married?
23.5 Complete the sentences. Choose from the list and put the verb into the correct form: damage, eat, enjoy, go, go, away, listen, open, pronounce, rain, understand, use.
I'm going to take an umbrella with me. It's raining.
Why are you so tired? Did you go to bed late last night?
Where are the chocolates? Have you eaten them all?
How is your new job? Are you enjoying it?
My car was badly damaged in the accident but I was OK.
Chris has got a car but she doesn't use it very often.
Mary isn't at home. She has gone away for a few days.
I don't understand the problem. Can you explain it again?
Martin is in his room. He's listening to music.
I don't know how to say this word. How is it pronounced?
How do you open this window? Can you show me?
23.4 Put in is/are/was/were/have/has.
Joe has lost his passport.
This bridge was built ten years ago.
3 Have you finished your work yet?
4 This town is always clean. The streets are cleaned every day.
5 Where were you born?
6 I ‘ve just made some coffee. Would you like some?
7 Glass is made from sand.
8 This is a very old photograph. It was taken a long time ago.
9 Joe has bought a new car.
42.1 Make these sentences negative.
He's gone away. He hasn’t gone away.
They're married. They are not married.
I've had dinner. I have not had dinner.
It's cold today. It isn’t cold today.
We'll be late. We won’t be late.
You should go. You shouldn’t go.
42.3 Make these sentences negative.
She can swim. She can’t swim.
They've arrived. They haven’t arrived.
I went to the bank. I didn’t go to the bank.
He speaks German. He doesn’t speak German.
We were angry. We were not angry.
6 He'll be pleased. He won’t be pleased.
7 Phone me tonight. Don’t phone me tonight.
8. It rained yesterday. It didn’t rain yesterday.
9 I could hear them. I couldn’t hear them.
10. I believe you. I don’t believe you.
42.2 Make these sentences negative. Use don't/doesn't/didn't.
She saw me. She didn’t see me.
I like cheese. I don’t like cheese.
They understood. They didn’t understand.
He lives here. He doesn’t live here.
Go away! Don’t go away!
I did the shopping. I didn’t do the shopping.
42.4 Complete these sentences with a negative verb (isn't/haven't/don't etc.).
They aren't rich. They didn’t get much money.
'Would you like something to eat?' 'No, thank you. I’m not hungry.'
I can’t find my glasses. Have you seen them?
4 George doesn’t write letters very often. He prefers to use the phone.
We can walk to the station from here. It isn’t very far.
'Where's Jill?' 'I don’t know. I haven’t seen her today.'
Be careful! Don’t fall!
We went to the cinema last night. I didn’t like the film very much.
I've been to Spain many times but I haven’t been to Portugal.
Julia can’t be here tomorrow. She's going away.
'Who broke that window?' 'Not me. I didn’t do it.'
12. We didn't see what happened. We were not looking at the time.
42.5 You ask Gary some questions. His answers are always 'Yes' or 'No'. Write sentences about Gary, positive or negative.
Are you married?
He isn’t married.
Do you live in London?
He lives in London.
Were you born in London?
He wasn’t born in London.
Do you like London?
He doesn’t like London.
Would you like to live in the country?
He would like to live in the country.
Can you drive?
He can drive.
Have you got a car?
He doesn’t have a car.
Do you read newspapers?
He doesn’t read newspapers.
Are you interested in politics?
He isn’t interested in politics.
Do you watch TV most evenings?
He watches TV most evenings.
Did you watch TV last night?
He didn’t watch TV last night.
Did you go out last night?
He went out last night.
Текст для студентов факультета психологии:
THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY
While all psychologists have in common years of training at the graduate level, the specific area of psychology as well as the techniques and methodology studied differ greatly.
The major subfields of psychology (and this is by no means an exhaustive list) are:
1. Experimental psychology. The term experimental psychology is both a general label that covers many areas of psychology and also a specific designation for a particular group of psychologists. First, any psychologist who uses the experimental method to conduct research is an experimental psychologist. The second meaning of the term has historically been applied to those psychologists who study: sensation and perception; human performance; learning; motivation and emotion; language; thinking, judging, and problem solving; and physiological processes. More than two-thirds of the experimental psychologists work in an academic setting, where they teach as well as conduct research. Some work for government agencies, research foundations, or private research centers such as Bell Telephone Laboratories.
2. Clinical and counseling psychology. The clinician diagnoses and treats individuals who suffer from emotional or adjustment problems. The clinician may conduct psychotherapy in private practice; in a state or private institution, such as a Veterans Administration Hospital; or in a number of varied settings such as juvenile courts, probation offices, prisons, or institutions for the mentally retarded. The clinician may also be a member of the psychology faculty of a university, teaching undergraduate courses, training clinical graduate students, and perhaps also conducting therapy.
The counseling psychologist is very similar to the clinician in both academic background and function. The counseling psychologist isemployed in an educational setting, offering both vocational and emotional guidance to high school and college students.
3.Industrial psychology. Industrial psychology is an applied field. Psychologists in this area are primarily practitioners who apply psychological principles to the work setting, though some industrial psychologists also conduct research to solve on-the-job problems. Industrial psychologists are concerned with the "human factor" in the technological setting - how satisfied workers are with their jobs, how to increase morale and productivity, how to increase the quality of the industry's services, and how to develop better training and placement procedures. Industrial psychologists must have a special set of skills. They must be able to translate psychological knowledge and skills to practical settings, as well as be able to communicate psychological principles to an audience with little or no back ground in die field.
4. Engineering psychology. The majority of engineering psychologists are employed in industry, where they design equipment and training devices that are appropriate to human capacities. They also design and implement training programs to ensure the efficient functioning of human-machine systems. Other engineering psychologists work in governmental agencies or in private consulting firms.
5. School and educational psychology. School psychologists are concerned with the problems of adjustment, mental health, and academic achievement in elementary school children. They may also administer intelligence and proficiency tests to the students, assess problem behaviors and refer these children to counseling agencies, and design and evaluate special education projects.
Educational psychologists are primarily concerned with the application of psychological principles and techniques to problems in education. They analyze educational needs, develop curriculum and teaching materials, and evaluate instructional programs.
6. Psychometric psychology. Psychometric psychologists develop testing instruments that evaluate intellectual, personality, educational, or social characteristics, and adapt or develop statistical techniques for the analysis of the test data gathered. They also evaluate testing instruments to determine if they are consistent and valid indicators of the concepts measured. The field of psychometrics overlaps with many of the other areas of psychology; for example, a psychometrician may construct measuring techniques in clinical, personality, or developmental psychology.
7. Developmental psychology. The developmental psychologist focuses on the human life-span: infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Specific issues that the developmental psychologist may study include the acquisition of language and reasoning skills; the development of altruistic behavior and moral reasoning; the development of social skills and perceptions of self and others; and issues of adjustment in adulthood.
8. Social psychology. Social psychologists study the interactions between people, their perceptions of one another, and the effects that groups have on the behavior of die individual.
A sample of the topics studied by social psychologists are: social perception and impression formation; aggression and violence; the formation and change of attitudes; sex roles; and conformity and social influence.
Most social psychologists hold positions in colleges and universities; some hold research positions at private foundations and governmental agencies; still others are employed in more applied settings such as public opinion and market research consulting firms.
9. Personality psychology. The field of personality psychology overlaps with both social and developmental psychology, and is the field in which many psychometricians work. Personality psychology is both a research area and an area of concentration in educational and clinical psychology. Personality psychology is the study of individual differences - how people differ in terms of given characteristics such as authoritarianism or emotional stability.
More than half of the positions held by personality psychologists are in universities, where both teaching and research is conducted. In addition, personality psychologists are employed by the government and private foundations.
В то время как все психологи остаются на уровне выпускника, наука психология так же как и ее технологии и методология очень развилась.
1. Экспериментальная психология. Термин экспериментальная психология - это главное понятие, покрывающее много областей психологии, но также имеющее определенное значение для особой группы психологов. Во-первых, любой психолог, который использует экспериментальный метод, чтобы провести исследование, является экспериментальным психологом. Второе значение термина было исторически применено к тем психологам, которые изучают: чувство и восприятие; человеческое представление; обучение; мотивацию и эмоции; язык; мышление, суждение, и решение задач; и физиологические процессы. Больше чем две трети экспериментальной работы психологов заключается в академической работе, где они преподают так же как проводят исследование. Некоторые работают для правительственных учреждений, исследовательский фондов, или частных исследовательских центров, таких как Bell Telephone Laboratories.
2. Клиническая и консультирующая психология. Клинический психолог производит диагностику и лечит людей, страдающих от эмоциональных проблем и проблем с адаптацией. Клинический психолог может провести психотерапию в частной практике; в государственной или частной организации, такой как Правительственный военный госпиталь; или во многих других учреждениях, таких как отделы по делам несовершеннолетних, испытательные колонии, тюрьмы, или учреждения для умственно отсталых. Клинический психолог может также быть членом психологического факультета университета, ведя студенческие курсы, учебных клинических аспирантов, и возможно также проводя терапию.
Деятельность консультирующего психолога схожа с деятельностью клинического и в уровне образовательной подготовки и в функциях. Консультирующий психолог нанимается в образовательное учреждение, предоставляя одновременно и профессионально-техническое и эмоциональное руководство ученикам средней школы и студентам колледжа.
3. Индустриальная психология. Индустриальная психология - прикладная область психологии. Психологи в этой области - прежде всего практики, которые применяют психологические принципы к урегулированию работы, хотя некоторые индустриальные психологи также проводят исследование, чтобы решить проблемы на рабочем месте. Индустриальные психологи обеспокоены "человеческим фактором" в технологическом урегулировании - насколько удовлетворены работники их рабочими местами, как увеличить мораль и производительность, как увеличить качество услуг промышленности, и как разработать лучшие способы обучения и размещения. У индустриальных психологов должен быть специальный набор навыков. Они должны быть в состоянии применить психологическое знания и навыки на практике, так же как уметь передать психологические принципы аудитории, работающей в умирающем поле деятельности.
4. Техническая психология. Большинство технических психологов работают в промышленности, где они проектируют оборудование и учебные устройства, которые соответствуют способностям человека. Они также создают программы обучения разработки и реализации, чтобы гарантировать эффективное функционирование систем, в которых человек работает с машинами. Другие технические психологи работают в правительственных агентствах или в частных консалтинговых фирмах.
5. Школьная и образовательная психология. Школьные психологи обеспокоены проблемами социализации, психического здоровья, и учебного достижения детей начальной школы. Они могут также проводить тесты на уровень интеллекта и развитости учеников, давать оценку проблемным поведениям и направлять этих детей на консультации, а также проектировать и оценить проекты в области специального образования.
Образовательные психологи прежде всего обеспокоены применением психологических принципов и методов к проблемам в образовании. Они анализируют образовательные потребности, создают учебный план и обучающие материалы, учебные программы.
6. Психометрическая психология. Психометрические психологи развивают инструменты тестирования, которые оценивают интеллектуальные, индивидуальные, образовательные или социальные характеристики и адаптируют или развивают статистические методы для анализа собранных данных испытаний. Они также оценивают инструменты тестирования, чтобы определить, являются ли они последовательными и действительными индикаторами измеренных понятий. Область психометрии соприкасается со многими из других областей психологии; например, психометрический психолог может использовать методы в клинической, индивидуальной или психологии развития.
7. Возрастная психология. Возрастной психолог сосредотачивается на периодах человеческой жизни: младенчество, детство, юность, взрослая жизнь и старость. Специфические вопросы, которые изучает возрастной психолог, включают овладение языком и навыки мышления; развитие альтруистического поведения и осознание морали; развитие социальных навыков и восприятие себя и других; и проблемы всупления во взрослую жизнь.
8. Социальная психология. Социальные психологи изучают взаимодействия между людьми, их восприятие друг друга и влияние, которое группы оказывают на поведение человека, индивидуальность.
Примеры изучаемых проблем социальными психологами: социальное восприятие и формирование впечатления; агрессия и насилие; формирование и изменение мнений; сексуальные роли; и конформистское и социальное влияние.
Большинство социальных психологов работают в колледжах и университетах; некоторые занимаются исследованием в частных фондах и правительственных учреждениях; в то время как другие работают в более специализированных учреждениях, таких как консалтинговые фирмы исследования рынка и общественного мнения.
9. Психология личности. Область данной психологии охватывает одновременно социальную и психологию развития, и является областью, в которой работают много психометрических психологов. Психология личности- это область исследования и область концентрации в образовательной и клинической психологии одновременно. Психология личности заключается в исследовании индивидуальных особенностей - того, как люди отличаются с точки зрения данных особенностей, таких как авторитаризм или эмоциональная стабильность.
Более половины постов, занятых такими психологами, находится в университетах, где проводятся и обучение и исследование. Кроме того, эти психологи работают на государство и частные учреждения.